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Table 1 Screening for participants: inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Effects and feasibility of a standardised orientation and mobility training in using an identification cane for older adults with low vision: design of a randomised controlled trial

Inclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria:
- Aged 55 years or over - Cognitive impairment (a score of less than 4 on the Abbreviated Mental Test 4) [37, 38]
- Low vision - Language or hearing problems that impede completing an interview by telephone
- Living independently in the community or in a home for older people - Confinement to bed or possible nursing home admission that impede completion of the O&M-training
- Able to see large obstacles and to go outside for a short walk or doing groceries  
- One of the following:  
   ▪ experiencing difficulties with safely crossing a street - Permanent use of a walking aid incompatible with the use of an identification cane
   ▪ experiencing difficulties with recognising acquaintances outdoors - Having recently received an O&M-training in the use of an identification cane and permanent use of this cane
   ▪ willing to become recognisable as being partially sighted by using the identification cane  
- Written informed consent  
- Orientation and Mobility training (O&M-training) in the use of an identification cane