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Table 3 Psychosocial working conditions: means, univariate tests and covariate F-tests between the hospital types

From: Physicians' working conditions and job satisfaction: does hospital ownership in Germany make a difference?

  Private for-profit Public Private nonprofit F-test Covariates F-tests
  M SD M SD M SD (d.f. = 2, 200) (d.f. = 1, 202)
         Age Experience Gender
Job demands           
Quantitative demands 61.59 14.31 67.17 13.73 67.46 11.83 4.24* 1.49 .63 .27
Emotional demands 59.81 14.19 59.22 14.60 62.37 16.65 .48 6.62** .10 .01
Demands for hiding emotions 46.17 17.62 46.67 15.01 47.02 20.91 .07 1.96 .05 1.41
Job resources           
Possibilities for development 69.66 12.70 69.25 12.99 72.22 14.19 .81 1.84 .60 .16
Degree of freedom at work 49.76 16.26 51.33 14.72 49.14 15.48 .64 1.76 .01 .65
Influence at work 35.99 15.99 40.33 17.26 37.00 16.04 1.76 .26 .21 7.14**
Social relationships 59.68 19.79 55.67 20.68 52.98 19.41 1.76 4.31* .21 3.11
Sense of community 74.33 13.35 72.33 12.64 79.37 12.33 5.58** .26 .25 1.40
Social support 64.21 14.89 67.42 16.16 66.60 15.35 .91 .73 .02 .67
Quality of leadership 44.35 20.49 50.25 18.16 54.07 18.28 4.19* 1.04 4.50* .60
Feedback at work 30.65 18.62 37.50 18.26 39.09 18.31 3.63* .71 .45 .81
Job outcome           
Job satisfaction 57.72 15.21 58.93 11.78 61.22 12.36 1.32 .04 3.94* 2.28
  1. * p < .05; ** p < .01.