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Table 3 Health History and Status of Study Population (n = 780), and Their Bivariate Association with Barriers to Healthcare Utilization

From: Barriers to healthcare utilization in fatiguing illness: a population-based study in Georgia

Characteristics   Barriers to Healthcare Utilization
  All Yes No Unadjusted Odds Ratiosa Adjusted Odds Ratiosb
  n = 780 n = 315 (40%) n = 465 (60%) (95% CI) (95% CI)
Fatiguing Status***   Row % Row %   
   CFS** 112 (14.36) 55.36 44.64 7.87 (4.32–14.35) 4.88 (2.42–9.86)
   CFS but an exclusionary DX* 100 (12.82) 52.00 48.00 6.88 (3.72–12.70) 5.15 (2.48–10.69)
   ISF with Exclusionary Conditions 157 (20.13) 43.31 56.69 4.85 (2.75– 8.55) 3.97 (2.14–7.36)
   ISF 264 (33.85) 42.80 57.20 4.75 (2.79– 8.08) 3.81 (2.17–6.72)
   Non-fatigued 147 (18.85) 13.61 86.39 Reference Reference
Reported Duration of Fatigue***      
   >= 6 months* 396 (50.77) 52.02 47.98 2.85 (2.11–3.86) 1.82 (1.25–2.65)
   <6 months 21 (2.69) 42.86 57.14 1.97 (0.81–4.83) 1.65 (0.65–4.18)
   Never 363 (46.54) 27.55 72.45 Reference Reference
Other Health Conditions      Not included
   Both Psychiatric and Medical 33 (4.23) 54.55 45.45 1.89 (0.93–3.84) --
   Psychiatric 114 (14.62) 48.25 51.75 1.47 (0.98–2.21) --
   Medical 133 (17.05) 36.09 63.91 0.89 (0.60–1.33) --
   None 500 (64.10) 38.80 61.20 Reference --
BMI c *      
   Obese (>= 29.9) 278 (35.64) 37.77 62.30 1.05 (0.74–1.51) 0.84 (0.57–1.25)
   Overweight (24.9–29.9)* 264 (33.85) 46.59 53.41 1.51 (1.06–2.17) 1.31 (0.89–1.92)
   Under/Normal Weight (<24.9) 238 (30.51) 36.55 63.45 Reference Reference
History of CFS DX      
   Yes 50 (6.44) 44.00 56.00 1.17 (0.66–2.09) 0.70 (0.37–1.34)
   No 727 (93.56) 40.17 59.83 Reference Reference
OTCd Pain Relieves      
   Taking 294 (37.69) 41.16 58.84 1.05 (0.78–1.41) 1.01 (0.74–1.39)
   Not-taking 486 (62.31) 39.92 60.08 Reference Reference
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Per Increment  
Number of Health Problems 1.85 1.97 2.19 (2.14) 1.61 (1.81) 1.16 (1.08–1.25) 1.09 (1.00–1.19)
Healthcare Utilization     Per Consultation  
Frequency of Consultation     Increment  
   Consultation on Fatigue 1.38 (3.31) 1.60 (3.88) 1.22 (2.84) 1.04 (0.99–1.08) 1.01 (0.95–1.07)
   Consultation on Sleep 0.94 (2.20) 1.03 (2.20) 0.88 (2.20) 1.03 (0.97–1.10) 0.99 (0.90–1.09)
   Consultation on Cognition 0.59 (2.09) 0.57 (1.79) 0.60 (2.27) 0.99 (0.93–1.06) 0.93 (0.85–1.03)
   Consultation on Pain 3.52 (7.92) 3.66 (8.74) 3.42 (7.32) 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 0.99 (0.96–1.01)
  1. * indicates p-value < 0.01. **indicates p-value < 0.001. ***indicates p-value < 0.0001 (two-tailed tests); p-value < 0.05 were in bold font.
  2. Note: Values are No. (%) unless otherwise indicated.
  3. a Comparison between subjects who having any barrier to healthcare and those who not.
  4. b Adjusted for all other variables in the table.
  5. c Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.
  6. d OTC pain relieves included the over-the-counter (OTC) used for the reason of reducing pain such as joint, muscle, headache, backache, stomach ache, abdominal ache, arm and leg pain in the preceding two weeks.