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Table 4 Healthcare costs in post-index 12 months by insurance type and cohort

From: A retrospective study on the impact of comorbid depression or anxiety on healthcare resource use and costs among diabetic neuropathy patients

  Medicare supplemental insurance Commercial insurance
  DN-only* DN-DA* Adjusted cost difference1
(p-value)
DN-only* DN-DA* Adjusted cost difference1
(p-value)
Overall healthcare expenditures
(mean, SD):
      
Inpatient hospital $5,405 ($18,093) $11,544 ($34,481) $4,781 ** $7,864 (30,569) $15,994 ($38,452) $5,749**
Skilled nursing facility $661 ($4,040) $2,581 ($8,326) $1,654 ** $181 ($2,471) $427 ($2,994) $171 **
Emergency room $89 ($452) $229 ($797) $91 ** $234 ($1,037) $564 ($1,967) $241 **
Hospital outpatient $2,606 ($9,397) $3,550 ($7,589) $607 ** $4,169 ($12,507) $6,323 ($18,333) $1,371 **
Outpatient physician office $2,959 ($4,556) $3,435 ($3,921) $284 ** $2,815 ($4,930) $4,083 ($6,192) $977 **
Home health care $532 ($2,797) $614 ($2,063) $15 $671 ($3,884) $1,133 ($6,312) $235 **
Prescription medications $4,286 ($3,913) $5,185 ($4,708) $718 ** $4,257 ($6,538) $6,001 ($6,538) $1,361 **
Total $18,072 ($26,660) $30,410 ($46,083) $9,235 ** $22,437 ($44,179) $38,200 ($56,718) $10,389 **
DN-related healthcare expenditures (mean, SD):       
Inpatient $1,165 ($7,544) $2,947 ($12,387) $1,365 ** $2,461 ($12,422) $5,518 ($19,000) $2,084 **
Outpatient $420 ($1,508) $592 ($2,250) $91 ** $616 ($2,321) $706 ($2,282) $31
Pharmacy $189 ($549) $364 ($743) $172 ** $275 ($994) $666 ($1,457) $294 **
Total $1,773 ($7,749) $3,904 ($12,864) $1,594 ** $3,353 ($12,821) $6,890 ($19,442) $2,432 **
  1. Source: Thomson Medstat MarketScan database for patients with Medicare supplemental and commercial insurance (2004–2005)
  2. * Mean and standard deviation (in parentheses) are reported for each healthcare service. Expenditures were adjusted to 2006 dollars using the medical services component of the consumer price index.
  3. 1Adjusted difference estimated from generalized least squares regression with a gamma distribution specification.
  4. ** Denotes p < 0.05.