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Table 2 pre-index clinical characteristics by insurance type and cohort

From: A retrospective study on the impact of comorbid depression or anxiety on healthcare resource use and costs among diabetic neuropathy patients

  Medicare supplemental insurance Commercial insurance
  DN-only DN-DA p-value* DN-only DN-DA p-value*
# Observations 16,831 1,699   17,205 3,105  
Diabetes related complications and comorbidities (%)       
   Cardiovascular disease (CVD) 73.2 81.0 < 0.05 58.3 64.3 < 0.05
   Cerebro/peripheral vascular disease (CPVD) 34.8 44.4 < 0.05 18.6 25.0 < 0.05
   Other metabolic diseases 9.0 19.2 < 0.05 8.5 16.9 < 0.05
   Nephropathy 7.5 10.4 < 0.05 7.0 8.6 < 0.05
   Retinopathy 13.8 13.7 0.94 16.0 15.1 0.20
   Hypoglycemic events 8.9 12.6 < 0.05 9.9 14.1 < 0.05
   Skin problems 21.4 25.3 < 0.05 20.7 23.4 < 0.05
   Infections related to diabetes 1.9 3.7 < 0.05 1.4 3.1 < 0.05
   Obesity 1.3 3.1 < 0.05 3.8 9.2 < 0.05
   Leg amputation 0.2 0.3 0.29 0.1 0.4 < 0.05
Anti-diabetic treatment (%)       
   No treatment 14.3 15.2 0.28 14.2 16.1 < 0.05
   Insulin only 15.1 18.0 < 0.05 18.5 21.8 < 0.05
   Oral antidiabetic agent only 49.5 44.6 < 0.05 41.2 33.4 < 0.05
   Insulin with oral anti-diabetic therapy 21.1 22.1 0.34 26.2 28.7 < 0.05
Resource use and costs       
   % Patients with any hospitalization 28.0 46.0 < 0.05 20.1 35.7 < 0.05
   Total diabetes-related healthcare expenditures$ (mean, SD) $3,823 ($11,783) $7,384 ($21,727) < 0.05 $6,102 ($18,252) $10,580 ($29,887) < 0.05
   Total healthcare expenditures$ (mean, SD) $15,332 ($21,915) $25,514 ($38,869) < 0.05 $17,848 ($36,220) $30,352 ($52,812) < 0.05
  1. Source: Thomson Medstat MarketScan database for patients with Medicare supplemental and commercial insurance (2004–2005)
  2. * Student t-tests for continuous variables and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests for categorical variables were performed.
  3. $ Expenditures were adjusted to 2006 dollars using the medical component of the consumer price index. SD = standard deviation.