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Table 1 Characteristics of research participants by users and nonusers of ongoing services

From: Factors contributing to attrition behavior in diabetes self-management programs: A mixed method approach

Characteristic Overall (N = 267) % (n) or Mean (± SD) Users (n = 149) % or Mean (± SD) Nonusers (n = 118) % or Mean (± SD) P-value
Sex     0.163
   Male 46.1 (123) 42.3 50.8  
   Female 53.9 (144) 57.7 49.2  
Age continuous (years) 57.9 (± 11.8) 58.66 (± 10.9) 56.80 (± 12.8) 0.180
Age categories     0.035
   ≤ 49 24.3 (65) 18.8 31.4  
   50–64 45.3 (121) 51.0 38.1  
   ≥ 65 30.3 (81) 30.2 30.5  
Primary language spoken     0.000
   English 42.3 (113) 31.5 55.9  
   Cantonese 39.3 (105) 47.0 29.7  
   Portuguese 18.4 (49) 21.5 14.4  
Marital status     0.074
   Single/never married/divorced/widowed 27.0 (70) 23.3 31.9  
   Married/living with partner 73.0 (189) 76.7 68.1  
Education     0.002
   < Grade 9 48.3 (128) 56.8 43.2  
   Some high school and up 51.7 (137) 37.6 46.7  
Household Income 48,900 (± 15,400) 49,000 (± 12,800) 48,800.00 (± 19,100) 0.070
Primary daily activity     0.000
   Employed full or part-time 39.8 (106) 26.8 56.4  
   Unemployed 32.0 (85) 39.6 22.2  
   Retired 28.2 (75) 33.6 21.4  
Time since diagnosis (years) 3.0 (0.25, 10)a 4.0 (0.25, 10)a 3.0 (0.25, 10.0)a 0.56
Age of diagnosis (years) 51 (± 11.54) 52.38 (± 11.4) 50.96 (± 12.1) 0.34
Type of medical management     0.03
   Medical nutrition therapy 25.4 (67) 19.5 33.0  
   Oral agents 64.0 (169) 70.5 55.7  
   Insulin 10.6 (28) 10.1 11.3  
Referral     0.895
   Primary care physician 47.7 (126) 49.0 46.2  
   Diabetes specialist/endocrinologist 27.3 (72) 27.2 27.4  
   Self 4.2 (11) 3.4 5.1  
   Other 20.8 (55) 20.4 21.4  
Have a regular primary care physician     0.019
   Yes 87.7 (228) 83.4 93.0  
   No 12.3 (32) 16.6 7.0  
Number of contacts 1.0 (0, 3.00)a 8.0 (5.0, 12.50)a 2.0 (1.0, 2.0)a 0.000
Number of diabetes symptoms 1.73 (0.0, 3.0)a 2.0 (0.0, 3.0)a 1.0 (0.0, 2.0)a 0.000
BMI (kg/m2) 30.78 (± 6.5) 30.7 (± 6.74) 30.9 (± 6.21) 0.793
Distance from patients' residence to centre in KM 5.6 (2.8, 13.1)a 5.25 (2.5, 10.0)a 6.9 (3.2,16.9)a 0.084
  1. Note: Some percentages may not add up to 100% due to missing data; SD = Standard deviations;
  2. aMedian and interquartile range