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Table 1 Pathway characteristics and quality outcome measures of studies included

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of clinical pathways on length of stay, hospital costs and patient outcomes

Pathway Charac-teristics    Quality Measure Pathway [n/N] Control [n/N]
Study-ID multi-disciplinary evidence-based protocol/algorithm based   Counts and rates are presented in natural units and as percentages as far as reported N = numer of participants n = number of events (%) = percentage
Invasive Care       
Grines, CL X X X In-hospital complications 20/237 (8.4%) 20/234 (8.5%) N.S.
1998     Re-hospitalisation (6 months) 10/237 (4.2%) 9/234 (3.9%) N.S.
Swanson, CE X Not X Hospital mortality 2/38 (5.2%) 2/33 (6.1%) N.S.
1998   sure   Mean Modified Barthel Index 92.8 85.6 (p < 0.05)
Dowsey, MM X X X In-hospital complications 10/92 (10.8%) 20/71 (28.1%) (p < 0.05)
1999     Re-hospitalisation (3 months) 1/92 (1.1%) 0/71 (0%) N.S.
Choong, PF X X X In-hospital complications 10/55 (18.2%) 14/56 (25.0%) N.S.
2000     Re-hospitalisation (28 days) 2/55 (3.6%) 6/56 (10.7%) N.S.
Aizawa, T X X X In-hospital complications 1/32 (3.1%) 2/37 (5.4%) N.S.
2002     Re-hospitalisation (6 months) 1/32 (3.1%) 0/37 (0%) N.S.
Kiyama, T X X X In-hospital complications 3/47 (6.4%) 5/38 (13.2%) N.S.
2003       
Hirao, M X X X In-hospital complications 19/53 (35.8%) 17/50 (34.0%) N.S.
2005     Re-hospitalisation (6 months) 0/53 (0%) 0/50 (0%)
Non-Invasive Care       
Falconer, JA X Not X Mortality (12 months) N.S. N.S.
1993   Sure   Re-hospitalisation (12 months) N.S. N.S.
     Cognitive and functional scores (0–100) N.S. N.S.
     Patient satisfaction 7.7 (SD 2.6) 8.8 (SD 1.7) (p < 0.05)
Gomez, MA X X X Complete and graded exercise test 44/50 (88.0%) 15/50 (30.0%)
1996       
Roberts, RR X X X Hospitalised patients as % (45.1%) (100%)
1997     Re-hospitalisation (8 weeks) 5/82 (6.1%) 4/83 (4.8%) N.S.
Johnson, KB 2000 X X X Unscheduled clinic visits; no hospital re-admission (2 weeks) 0/55 (0%) 2/55 (3.6%)
Kollef, HM X X X In-hospital complications 9/239 (3.8%) 13/250 (5.2%) N.S.
2000     Hospital mortality 5/239 (2.1%) 8/250 (3.2%) N.S.
Marrie, TJ 2000 X X X Absolute difference in rates (ARR) between pathway and control   1-sided 95% CI upper limit:
     In-hospital complications (0.6%) (4.6%) N.S.
     Re-hospitalisation (6 weeks) (0.7%) (3.6%) N.S.
     Mortality (6 weeks) (-0.1%) (2.5%) N.S.
Sulch, D X X X Median Barthel Index Score (26 weeks) 17 17 N.S.
1999     Mortality (26 weeks) 10/76 (13.2%) 6/76 (7.9%) N.S.
Kim, MH X X X Complications until follow-up (27 days) 1/9 (11.1%) 1/9 (11.1%) N.S.
2002     Re-hospitalisation (27 days) 2/9 (22.2%) 0/9 (0%) N.S.
Chen, SH 2004 X X X Emergency room usage (not comparable with in-hospital complications) 3/20 (15.0%) 13/22 (59.1%) (p < 0.05)
     Re-hospitalisation (3 months) N.S. N.S.
Usui, K 2004 X X X Not reported   
  1. Legend: Every pathway characteristic could be met as (1) "yes" criterion; (2) "not sure" because of poor reporting and the failure to contact the principal author or (3) "criterion not met." If one or more pathway criteria selected is/are not met, then we excluded the study. Due to poor reporting some quality measures are presented only as percentages or mean scores with or without associated standard deviations (SD). Some quality measures were only reported as statistical significant (i.e. p < 0.05) or not significant (N.S.) and any other data were missing.
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