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Table 2 Frequency of within-institution duplicate imaging 12 months before and 12 months after introduction of PACS

From: Impact of picture archiving communication systems on rates of duplicate imaging: a before-after study

  Frequency of duplicate imaging  
  Before PACS After PACS P
Duplicate test within less than 7 days    
   X-ray    
Chest 1146/60598 (1.9) 1070/60366 (1.8) 0.12
Abdomen 339/8512(4.0) 273/8355 (3.3) 0.01
Total 1485/69110 (2.2) 1343/68721 (2.0) 0.01
   Computed tomography    
Abdomen/Pelvis 275/14213 (1.9) 351/16060 (2.2) 0.13
Head 1099/16523 (6.7) 1180/18102 (6.5) 0.62
Chest 78/6627 (1.2) 120/8173 (1.5) 0.13
Total 1452/37363 (3.9) 1651/42335 (3.9) 0.92
Duplicate test within less than 30 days    
   X-ray    
Chest 3948/58212 (6.8) 3592/58204 (6.2) <0.001
Abdomen 667/8248 (8.1) 595/8123 (7.3) 0.07
Total 4615/66460 (6.9) 4187/66327 (6.3) <0.001
   Computed tomography    
Abdomen/Pelvis 596/13969 (4.3) 786/15764 (5.0) 0.003
Head 1640/16364 (10.0) 1856/17868 (10.4) 0.26
Chest 200/6525 (3.1) 309/8019 (3.9) 0.01
Total 2436/36858 (6.6) 2951/41651 (7.1) 0.01
Duplicate test within less than 60 days    
   X-ray    
Chest 6032/56841 (10.6) 5519/56902 (9.7) <0.001
Abdomen 857/8143 (10.5) 789/8012 (9.9) 0.16
Total 6889/64984 (10.6) 6308/64914 (9.7) <0.001
   Computed tomography    
Abdomen/Pelvis 968/13679 (7.1) 1174/15461 (7.6) 0.09
Head 1883/16257 (11.6) 2157/17736 (12.2) 0.10
Chest 341/6405 (5.3) 498/7857 (6.3) 0.01
Total 3192/36341 (8.8) 3829/41054 (9.3) 0.01
  1. Abbreviations: PACS, picture archiving communication systems.
  2. All numbers reported as no. of index tests associated with a duplicate test/total no. of index tests (%).
  3. All P values are for difference in frequency of duplicate imaging before versus after PACS.