Skip to main content

Table 1 Clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters in all study participants and diabetic participants with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria

From: Albuminuria, cardiovascular risk factors and disease management in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study

Characteristics All study participants Normo-albuminuric Micro-albuminuric Macro-albuminuric P***
N N = 581 n = 371 n = 158 n = 52  
Age (years) 61.0 (9.5) 60.3 (9.9) 62.3 (8.8) 61.7 (8.5) 0.0859
Men (%) 60.6 56.3 63.3 82.7 0.0009
Duration of diabetes (years) 9.5 (8.3) 8.3 (7.5) 11.3 (9.1) 13.2 (9.4) < 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 30.8 (5.3) 30.6 (5.2) 31.0 (5.3) 31.1 (6.4) 0.6640
Waist-hip ratio 0.95 (0.08) 0.94 (0.07) 0.96 (0.08) 0.97 (0.08) 0.0005
Waist circumference (cm) 105.2 (12.8) 104.1 (12.4) 106.8 (13.4) 108.5 (13.0) 0.0129
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 140.0 (21.7) 135.2 (19.4) 145.6 (21.1) 157.7 (26.0) < 0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80.8 (10.9) 79.9 (10.5) 82.0 (11.4) 83.7 (11.5) 0.0158
Regular smoker (%) 13.9 12.4 15.2 21.2 0.2023
Physical inactivity (%) 57.3 56.6 57.0 63.5 0.6415
Alcohol intake 0 g/day (%) 41.3 40.7 39.9 50.0 0.4380
0.1–39.9 (men) 0.1–19.9 (women) (%) 45.3 46.1 47.5 32.7  
≥ 40 g/day (men) ≥ 20 g/day (women) (%) 13.4 13.2 12.7 17.3  
History of cardiovascular events (%) 27.7 25.3 29.8 38.5 0.1124
HbA1c (%) 7.3 (1.4) 7.1 (1.2) 7.5 (1.6) 8.1 (1.8) < 0.0001
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)* 1.04 (1.33) 0.99 (1.24) 1.09 (1.43) 1.26 (1.47) < 0.0001
GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)** 71.6 (18.9) 73.7 (16.9) 69.5 (21.0) 63.2 (22.2) 0.0002
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 207.4 (42.2) 203.7 (39.6) 212.5 (44.7) 218.2 (49.9) 0.0139
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 129.0 (30.7) 126.3 (28.2) 132.7 (32.8) 137.2 (37.9) 0.0109
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 50.0 (14.8) 50.5 (13.9) 49.3 (17.1) 48.4 (13.5) 0.5150
Serum uric acid (mg/dl) 5.7 (1.6) 5.5 (1.4) 6.0 (1.7) 6.3 (1.9) < 0.0001
  1. Data are means (± SD) unless otherwise indicated. Cardiovascular events include acute myocardial infarction or stroke
  2. * geometric mean
  3. **estimated from the MDRD equation
  4. ***p-value for differences between type 2 diabetes subjects with normo-, micro- and macroalbuminuria
\