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Table 1 Summary of key elements within SDM definitions based on the work by Makoul and Clayman (2005) [10]

From: Advancing theories, models and measurement for an interprofessional approach to shared decision making in primary care: a study protocol

Essential elements Ideal elements General qualities
• Definition/explanation of problem
• Presentation of options
• Discussion of pros/cons (benefits/risks/costs)
• Explication of patient values/preferences
• Discussion of patient ability/self-efficacy
• Presentation of doctor knowledge/recommendations
• Checking/clarifying understanding
• Making or explicitly deferring decision
• Arranging follow-up
• Presentation of unbiased information
• Definition of roles (desire for involvement)
• Presentation of evidence
• Reaching mutual agreement
• Deliberation/negotiation Flexibility/individualized approach
• Information exchange
• Involves at least two people
• Middle ground
• Mutual respect
• Partnership
• Patient education
• Patient participation
• Process/stages