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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for characteristics associated with the utilization of Chinese medicine and Western medicine (n = 136,720)

From: Utilization patterns of Chinese medicine and Western medicine under the National Health Insurance Program in Taiwan, a population-based study from 1997 to 2003

Characteristic Chinese medicine p value Western medicine p value
Gender     
   Male 1.00   1.00  
   Female 1.48 (1.45–1.50)* < 0.001 1.74 (1.72–1.77) < 0.001
Age (years)     
   2–7 1.00   1.00  
   8–14 1.14 (1.10–1.18) < 0.001 0.50 (0.49–0.51) < 0.001
   15–24 1.38 (1.33–1.44) < 0.001 0.36 (0.36–0.37) < 0.001
   25–34 1.58 (1.52–1.64) < 0.001 0.38 (0.37–0.38) < 0.001
   35–44 1.74 (1.67–1.81) < 0.001 0.39 (0.38–0.40) < 0.001
   45–54 1.75 (1.68–1.82) < 0.001 0.45 (0.44–0.46) < 0.001
   55–64 1.63 (1.56–1.71) < 0.001 0.64 (0.63–0.66) < 0.001
   ≥ 65 1.51 (1.44–1.58) < 0.001 1.09 (1.05–1.13) < 0.001
Socioeconomic status     
   ≥ US$1,280 1.00   1.00  
   US$640-1,279 1.05 (1.03–1.07) < 0.001 1.00 (0.98–1.01) 0.473
   < US$640 1.04 (1.02–1.06) < 0.001 0.98 (0.96–0.99) < 0.001
   Farmers and fishermen 0.90 (0.87–0.92) < 0.001 0.97 (0.95–0.99) < 0.001
   Others 0.86 (0.84–0.88) < 0.001 0.77 (0.76–0.78) < 0.001
Severe disease     
   Without 1.00   1.00  
   With 1.00 (0.95–1.05) 0.900 2.40 (2.29–2.52) < 0.001
Region     
   Eastern Taiwan 1.00   1.00  
   Taipei 0.91 (0.86–0.96) 0.001 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 0.117
   Northern Taiwan 0.96 (0.90–1.01) 0.123 1.08 (1.04–1.13) < 0.001
   Central Taiwan 1.65 (1.56–1.74) < 0.001 1.15 (1.11–1.20) < 0.001
   Southern Taiwan 1.18 (1.12–1.25) < 0.001 1.20 (1.15–1.25) < 0.001
   Kaohsiung and Pingtung 1.09 (1.03–1.16) 0.002 1.21 (1.16–1.26) < 0.001
Remote Area     
   General Population 1.00   1.00  
   Mountainous regions 0.57 (0.52–0.63) < 0.001 1.03 (0.96–1.11) 0.356
   Offshore islands 0.78 (0.70–0.86) < 0.001 1.21 (1.13–1.30) < 0.001
Season     
   Winter (December – February) 1.00   1.00  
   Spring (March – May) 0.95 (0.95–0.96) < 0.001 0.88 (0.88–0.89) < 0.001
   Summer (June – August) 0.90 (0.89–0.90) < 0.001 0.79 (0.79–0.80) < 0.001
   Autumn (September – November) 0.93 (0.93–0.94) < 0.001 0.86 (0.85–0.86) < 0.001
Year     
   1997 1.00   1.00  
   1998 1.05 (1.03–1.06) < 0.001 1.10 (1.10–1.11) < 0.001
   1999 1.10 (1.09–1.12) < 0.001 1.21 (1.20–1.22) < 0.001
   2000 1.10 (1.09–1.11) < 0.001 1.26 (1.25–1.27) < 0.001
   2001 1.11 (1.09–1.12) < 0.001 1.27 (1.26–1.28) < 0.001
   2002 1.12 (1.10–1.13) < 0.001 1.28 (1.26–1.29) < 0.001
   2003 1.15 (1.14–1.17) < 0.001 1.17 (1.16–1.19) < 0.001
  1. *Odds ratio (95% confidence interval).