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Table 3 Associations between Smoking Status and Patterns in Health Care among Older Adults with Obstructive Respiratory Disease, 1992–2002*

From: Quality of care for older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma based on comparisons to practice guidelines and smoking status

  Any Spirometry
examination&
Any
Pulmonologist
visits
Number of
Physician Visits
Any Emergency
room visits
Any Hospital Days Number of
Hospital Days
  OR (95% CI) † OR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) RR (95% CI)
Smoking history       
   None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Former smoker 1.00 (0.88–1.13) 1.12 (0.98–1.28) 0.97 (0.94–1.01) 1.06 (0.97–1.17) 1.10 (1.00–1.20) 1.04 (0.99–1.09)
   Current smoker 0.76 (0.64–0.91) 0.76 (0.64–0.91) 0.78 (0.75–0.82) 0.87 (0.76–0.99) 0.81 (0.72–0.92) 0.91 (0.85–0.97)
  1. * The base case represents a relatively health 70 year old male with obstructive respiratory disease, but no smoking history. This person resides in a northeastern city and has no drug coverage, over $25,000 in income, and a high school diploma.
  2. † The logistic and negative binomial regression estimates are linearly adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, health, region and time characteristics (See table 1). The number of hospital days is examined using a two-part model (i.e., logit and negative binomial) because of excess zeros in the count of hospital days.
  3. & All health care measures represent utilization over a calendar year.