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Table 2 Smoking History and Patterns in Health Care among Older Adults with Obstructive Respiratory Disease, 1992–2002

From: Quality of care for older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma based on comparisons to practice guidelines and smoking status

  Older Adults with Obstructive
Respiratory Disease
Older Adults with Obstructive Respiratory
Disease & Treated with Pharmacotherapy
  No
Pharmacotherapy
Pharmacotherapy * p-value No short-acting
inhaled
bronchodilator
Short-acting
inhaled
bronchodilator †
p-value
Number of person-years 14,894 6,631   1,995 4,636  
Annual use of health care, %       
   Spirometry examinations 0.08 0.24 <0.01 0.21 0.26 <0.01
   Pulmonologist visits 0.08 0.27 <0.01 0.25 0.29 <0.01
   Influenza vaccination 0.67 0.77 <0.01 0.73 0.79 <0.01
   Emergency room visits 0.20 0.26 <0.01 0.26 0.25 0.59
Number of physician visits 8.94 10.95 <0.01 11.30 11.03 0.99
Number of days in hospital 2.76 4.37 <0.01 5.48 3.86 <0.01
Respiratory medications, %       
   Corticosteroid inhalers     0.23 0.35 <0.01
   Xanthines     0.34 0.26 <0.01
   Salmeterol     0.10 0.10 0.82
   Leukotriene receptor antagonists     0.04 0.05 0.12
   Oxygen     0.49 0.28 <0.01
Smoking History, %       
   None 0.35 0.24 <0.01 0.28 0.21 <0.01
   Former Smoker 0.49 0.61 <0.01 0.58 0.62 <0.01
   Current Smoker 0.16 0.15 0.02 0.14 0.17 <0.01
Influenza vaccination 0.67 0.77 <0.01 0.73 0.79 <0.01
  1. * Respiratory treatments include oxygen, ipratropium (Atrovent®) inhaler, ipratropium-albuterol (Combivent®) inhaler, xanthines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, short-acting beta antagonist inhalers, salmeterol (Serevent®), and corticosteroid inhalers.
  2. † Short-acting inhaled bronchodilators (metered dose inhalers and nebulizer solutions) include: beta-agonists ipratropium bromide (Atrovent®), and the combination of ipratropium bromide and albuterol (Combivent®) inhalers.
  3. & All health care measures represent utilization over a calendar year.