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Table 1 Characteristics of 998 adults with diabetes with and without heart failure (HF)

From: Relationship of literacy and heart failure in adults with diabetes

Characteristic All Subjects (n = 998) Subjects with HF (n = 172) Subjects without HF (n = 826) P
Age, years, mean (range) 65 (22–93) 69 (45–90) 64 (22–93) <0.001
Age ≥ 65 years, n (%) 524 (53) 114 (66) 410 (50) <0.001
Female, n (%) 543 (54) 84 (49) 459 (56) 0.11
White race, n (%) 968 (97) 165 (96) 803 (97) 0.48
Married or living as married, n (%) 623 (63) 96 (56) 527 (64) 0.06
Annual income < $30,000, n (%) 543 (59) 120 (75) 423 (56) <0.001
High School Graduate, n (%) 746 (75) 102 (60) 644 (78) <0.001
No health insurance, n (%) 24 (2) 3 (2) 21 (3) 0.54
Limited Literacy, n (%) 171 (17) 46 (27) 125 (15) <0.001
Adequate Literacy, n (%) 827 (83) 126 (73) 701 (85) <0.001
  1. Limited Literacy includes those with Short Test of Functional Health Literacy Score < 23, blind or otherwise unable to complete the test.