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Table 2 Adjusted Hazards Ratios from the Mortality Models.

From: Exploring the association of dual use of the VHA and Medicare with mortality: separating the contributions of inpatient and outpatient services

Dual Use Terms   
  Model 1 Model 2
   Non-Veterans (reference group) 1.000 1.000
   VHA Only Veterans 1.368 1.379
   Medicare Only Veterans 1.079 1.081
   Dual Use Veterans 1.383*  
   Subsets of Dual Use Veterans   
Dual Use by Hospitalization Criterion   1.214
Dual Use by Physician Visit Criterion   1.449
Dual Use by Both Criteria   1.979*
Covariates   
Sociodemographic   
Age 1.096*** 1.096***
Race   
   White (reference group) 1.000 1.000
   Hispanic 0.824 0.819
   African American 0.897 0.892
   Other Race 1.209 1.218
Living Alone 1.060 1.051
Socioeconomic   
Education   
   Grade School 0.807* 0.813*
   High School (reference group) 1.000 1.000
   Some College 0.831 0.831
Income < $15,000 0.923 0.929
Wealth <= $19,000 1.040 1.017
Private Health Insurance 0.963 0.961
Life Style   
Smoker (ever) 1.138 1.137
Weight   
   Normal or under weight (reference group) 1.000 1.000
   Over Weight 0.853* 0.848*
   Obese 0.820 0.818
Drinking   
   Never drank (reference group) 1.000 1.000
   <1 drink/day 0.958 0.957
   1–2 drinks/day 0.912 0.915
   3+ drinks/day 1.063 1.067
Never Having a Driver's License 0.976 0.968
Disease History   
Arthritis 0.989 0.988
Cancer 1.202 1.210
Diabetes 1.340** 1.327**
Stroke 1.439** 1.428**
Hypertension 1.015 1.011
Lung Disease 1.563*** 1.564***
Heart Condition 1.210* 1.200*
Hip Fracture 1.102 1.100
Psychological Problems 1.444* 1.455*
Functional Limitations   
ADL Count 0.940 0.942
IADL Count 1.132* 1.133*
Lower Body Limitations Count 1.062 1.058
Hearing – Poor or Fair 0.945 0.941
Vision – Poor or Fair 1.170 1.170
Memory – Poor or Fair 0.842* 0.843*
Self-Rated Health:   
   Excellent or Very Good 0.765** 0.763**
   Good (reference group) 1.000 1.000
   Poor or Fair 1.157 1.154
Ability to Drive 1.026 1.011
Depressive Symptoms   
   None 0.964 0.968
   1 or 2 (reference group) 1.000 1.000
   3 or more 1.246* 1.264*
Cognitive Status   
   Low 1.169 1.171
   Average (reference group) 1.000 1.000
   High 0.779** 0.784**
Prior Health Services Usage   
N of Self-Reported Hospitalizations   
   0 (reference group) 1.000 1.000
   1 0.922 0.922
   2+ 1.313* 1.328*
N of Claim-based Physician Visits 1.009** 1.009**
  1. Note: Weighted analyses adjust for the unequal probabilities of selection due either to the multi-stage cluster sampling design and/or the over-sampling.
  2. p < .10 *p < .05 **p < .01 ***p < .001