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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: HEE-GER: a systematic review of German economic evaluations of health care published 1990–2004

  1990–1998 (n = 87) 1999–2004 (n = 196) 1990–2004 (n = 283)
  No. (%) studies   No. (%) studies   No. (%) studies  
By study type       
   Cost minimization 16 (18.4) 23 (11.7) 39 (13.8)
   Cost consequence 13 (14.9) 34 (17.4) 47 (16.6)
   Cost effectiveness (life years gained) 17 (19.5) 35 (17.9) 52 (18.4)
   Cost effectiveness (clinical outcome) 38 (43.7) 88 (44.9) 126 (44.5)
   Cost utility 3 (3.5) 15 (7.7) 18 (6.4)
   Cost benefit 0 (0) 1 (0.5) 1 (0.4)
By study design       
   Alongside RCT 3 (3.5) 31 (15.8) 34 (12.0)
   Modeling study 53 (60.9) 101 (51.5) 154 (54.4)
   Combination RCT/Modeling 3 (3.5) 15 (7.7) 18 (6.4)
   Observational 28 (32.2) 49 (25.0) 77 (27.2)
By study perspective (as stated by authors)       
   Not stated 51 (58.6) 75 (38.3) 126 (44.5)
   Third party payer (e.g., insurance) 32 (36.8) 83 (42.4) 115 (40.6)
   Societal 4 (4.6) 24 (12.2) 28 (9.9)
   Other (mainly 'patients')* 0 (0) 14 (7.1) 14 (5.0)
By disease category (ICD-9 category heading)       
   Circulatory system 22 (25.3) 35 (17.9) 57 (20.1)
   Neoplasms 13 (14.9) 23 (11.7) 36 (12.7)
   Infectious and parasitic 12 (13.8) 20 (10.2) 32 (11.3)
   Nervous system and sense organs 4 (4.6) 20 (10.2) 24 (8.5)
   Endocrine, nutritional, metabolic 7 (8.1) 15 (7.7) 22 (7.8)
   Other* 29 (33.3) 83 (42.3) 112 (39.6)
By level of care       
   Curative 63 (72.4) 148 (75.5) 211 (74.6)
   Rehabilitative 2 (2.3) 6 (3.1) 8 (2.8)
   Preventive 22 (25.3) 42 (21.4) 64 (22.6)
By intervention type       
   Pharmaceutical 49 (56.3) 96 (49.0) 145 (51.2)
   Medical procedure 6 (6.9) 38 (19.4) 44 (15.6)
   Screening 12 (13.8) 16 (8.2) 28 (9.9)
   Other* 20 (23.0) 46 (23.5) 66 (23.3)
  1. * Summarized over extracted categories