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Table 7 Changes in intermediate patient outcomes over the study period

From: Improving organisational systems for diabetes care in Australian Indigenous communities

Intermediate outcomes Baseline Year 1 Year 2 Mean differences or Risk Ratios (95% CI) Year 1 vs baseline Mean differences or Risk Ratios (95% CI) Year 2 vs baseline
  Mean or percentage (95% CI)   
HbA1c      
   Mean HbA1c level (%) 9.3 (8.8, 9.8) 8.9 (8.3, 9.4) 8.9 (8.6, 9.3) -0.4 (-0.7, -0.1) -0.4 (-0.7, -0.1)
   HbA1c < 8% 37 (28, 46) 40 (30, 50) 46 (40, 52) 1.18 (0.79, 1.61) 1.43 (1.03, 1.82)
   HbA1c < 7% 19 (13, 24) 21 (13, 29) 28 (22, 34) 1.16 (0.58, 2.09) 1.74 (1.11, 2.50)
Blood pressure (mmHg)      
   Mean systolic BP 130 (127, 133) 131 (128, 135) 130 (126, 133) 2.3 (-0.6, 5.2) -0.2 (-3.2, 2.8)
   Mean diastolic BP 79 (77, 82) 79 (77, 82) 79 (76, 81) 0.4 (-1.6, 2.3) -0.3 (-2.1, 1.4)
   BP < 140/90 65 (58, 72) 59 (51, 67) 67 (61, 73) 0.84 (0.66, 1.02) 1.04 (0.90, 1.17)
   BP < 130/80 33 (25, 41)) 33 (23, 43) 29 (22, 36) 0.97 (0.69, 1.29) 0.80 (0.57, 1.10)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)      
   Mean total cholesterol level 4.9 (4.7, 5.1) 4.9 (4.6,5.2) 4.9 (4.6, 5.3) -0.01 (-0.2, 0.2) -0.06 (-0.3, 0.2)
   Total cholesterol < 5.5 73 (66, 80) 73 (64, 82) 73 (63, 84) 1.00 (0.77, 1.17) 1.02 (0.82, 1.16)
   Total cholesterol < 4.0 22 (16, 28) 24 (17, 31) 30 (19, 41) 1.22 (0.68, 1.97) 1.58 (0.95, 2.35)
ACR      
   Median ACR level * 18.0 (3.7, 63.9) 19.6 (3.5, 83.2) 18.7 (4.8, 67.2) P = 0.49 P = 0.32
   ACR ≤ 3.4 21 (13, 29) 24 (13, 35) 18 (13, 23) 0.93 (0.42, 1.78) 0.76 (0.35, 1.46)
   3.4 < ACR ≤ 34 41 (33, 49) 33 (24, 42) 43 (35, 51) 0.73 (0.43, 1.11) 1.05 (0.72, 1.40)
   ACR > 34 38 (29, 47) 43 (30, 56) 39 (30, 48) 1.60 (0.92, 2.16) 1.13 (0.67, 1.63)
  1. * Figures in this row are medians (interquartile ranges). P values indicate statistical significance based on Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric group comparison.
  2. † Calculated by using multilevel regression models with adjustment for health centre clustering and repeated measurements within the same individuals, and by converting odds ratios into risk ratios when appropriate using a published formula. While the data for duration of diabetes were not sufficiently complete to allow for adjustment in the analysis (29% of participants had no date of diabetes diagnosis documented in medical records), additional adjustment for age did not significantly change the results. Therefore, we presented the data with no adjustment for age and duration of diabetes in this table. Mean differences or risk ratios significant at 0.05 level are shown in bold.