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Table 4 Changes in processes of diabetes care

From: Improving organisational systems for diabetes care in Australian Indigenous communities

Process items Scheduled interval (months) Baseline (n = 295) Year 1 (n = 253) Year 2 (n = 252) Risk Ratios (95% CI) Year 1 vs baseline Risk Ratios (95% CI) Year 2 vs baseline
   % of patients receiving services (95%CI)   
Basic measurement       
   Weight 3 47 (41, 53) 43 (37, 49) 61 (54, 67) 0.90 (0.72, 1.10) 1.34 (1.14, 1.52)
   Height Any time 32 (27, 38) 48 (42, 55) 71 (65, 76) 1.61 (1.30, 1.91) 2.35 (2.08, 2.56)
   BMI 12 16 (12, 21) 21 (16, 26) 46 (40, 53) 1.24 (0.84, 1.76) 3.09 (2.36, 3.82)
   Waist circumference 3 23 (18, 28) 28 (23, 34) 54 (48, 60) 1.28 (0.92, 1.70) 2.42 (2.00, 2.82)
   BP 3 63 (57, 69) 63 (56, 68) 76 (71, 82) 0.94 (0.76, 1.10) 1.27 (1.13, 1.37)
Eye check       
   Visual acuity 12 40 (35, 46) 42 (36, 48) 58 (52, 65) 1.06 (0.83, 1.31) 1.49 (1.26, 1.71)
   Cataracts 12 28 (23, 34) 35 (29, 41) 24 (19, 30) 1.31 (0.97, 1.68) 0.80 (0.58, 1.08)
   Fundi (dilated pupils) 12 34 (29, 40) 36 (30, 42) 30 (25, 37) 1.10 (0.83, 1.39) 0.90 (0.68, 1.15)
   Ophthalmologist review 24 34 (29, 40) 41 (34, 47) 54 (48, 61) 1.28 (0.99, 1.57) 1.68 (1.39, 1.95)
Feet check       
   Check done 3 20 (16, 25) 24 (19, 29) 58 (51, 64) 1.23 (0.84, 1.72) 3.01 (2.52, 3.47)
   Sensation 3 9 (6, 13) 12 (8, 16) 48 (41, 54) 1.49 (0.87, 2.46) 5.81 (4.43, 7.16)
   Peripheral pulses 3 8 (5, 12) 13 (9, 17) 48 (42, 54) 1.79 (1.05, 2.92) 6.61 (5.00, 8.17)
   Pressure areas 3 7 (5, 11) 11 (7, 16) 44 (38, 51) 1.78 (0.99, 3.06) 6.96 (5.10, 8.85)
   Infections 3 8 (6, 12) 12 (8, 17) 27 (22, 33) 1.64 (0.95, 2.69) 3.56 (2.39, 5.03)
Laboratory investigations       
   BSL (finger prick or venous) 3 61 (55, 67) 51 (44, 57) 69 (63, 74) 0.76 (0.60, 0.92) 1.13 (0.97, 1.27)
   HbA1c 6 41 (35, 47) 61 (55, 67) 74 (68, 80) 1.54 (1.31, 1.75) 1.93 (1.71, 2.10)
   Total cholesterol 12 56 (50, 62) 70 (64, 76) 74 (68, 79) 1.29 (1.13, 1.42) 1.36 (1.20, 1.49)
   Urine – Dipstix 3 20 (15, 25) 24 (19, 30) 48 (42, 55) 1.29 (0.93, 1.74) 2.66 (2.15, 3.16)
   Creatinine 12 65 (59, 71) 68 (62, 74) 74 (69, 80) 1.03 (0.88, 1.16) 1.15 (1.02, 1.26)
   ACR 12 54 (48, 59) 54 (47, 60) 61 (55, 67) 0.99 (0.80, 1.16) 1.15 (0.99, 1.31)
Counselling/advice       
   Diet 3 15 (11, 19) 23 (18, 29) 36 (30, 42) 1.73 (1.17, 2.45) 2.54 (1.90, 3.26)
   Activity 3 13 (9, 17) 22 (17, 27) 37 (31, 43) 1.82 (1.21, 2.62) 2.97 (2.20, 3.83)
   Smoking 3 10 (7, 14) 21 (16, 26) 30 (25, 37) 2.30 (1.50, 3.36) 3.21 (2.24, 4.37)
   Alcohol 3 9 (6, 13) 21 (16, 27) 33 (27, 39) 2.59 (1.67, 3.82) 3.78 (2.64, 5.11)
   Diabetes medications 3 10 (7, 14) 26 (21, 32) 36 (30, 42) 2.95 (1.94, 4.20) 3.65 (2.63, 4.82)
Immunisations       
   Influenza vaccination 12 54 (48, 59) 47 (41, 53) 83 (78, 87) 0.83 (0.65, 1.01) 1.63 (1.50, 1.72)
   Pneumococcal vaccination 5 yrs 73 (68, 78) 72 (66, 77) 80 (74, 85) 0.91 (0.73, 1.06) 1.10 (0.99, 1.18)
  1. Calculated by using multilevel logistic regression models with adjustment for health centre clustering and repeated measurements within the same individuals, and by converting odds ratios into risk ratios using a published formula. Risk ratios significant at 0.05 level are shown in bold.