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Table 4 Univariate analyses of patient satisfaction with the physical environments of outpatient waiting areas across patient personal characteristics and visiting information (n = 680)

From: Hospital outpatient perceptions of the physical environment of waiting areas: the role of patient characteristics on atmospherics in one academic medical center

  Visual environment Voice environment Body contact environment Cleanliness (overall and restrooms) Analytical techniques
Gender t = 0.689 t = 0.004 t = -1.357 t = 4.349 t-test
  sig = 0.491 sig = 0.997 sig = 0.175 sig = 0.000***  
     Male patients > Female patients  
Age β = 0.009 β = 0.008 β = 0.009 β = 0.002 Simple regression
  sig0.003** sig = 0.011* sig = 0.003** sig = 0.611  
Education F = 1.520 F = 1.400 F = 3.432 F = 0.306 ANOVA
  sig = 0.208 sig = 0.242 sig = 0.017* sig = 0.821  
    Patients with undergraduate and above < Patients with elementary and below   
Visiting frequency t = 1.175 t = -0.672 t = -2.827 t = -0.499 t-test
  sig = 0.240 sig = 0.502 sig = 0.005** sig = 0.618  
    First-time patients < Returning patients   
Visiting time t = 2.520 t = 0.718 t = -1.241 t = 2.073 t-test
  sig = 0.012* sig = 0.473 sig = 0.215 sig = 0.039*  
  Morning patients > Afternoon patients    Morning patients > Afternoon patients  
  1. Note:
  2. 1. Education was measured as four levels: undergraduate and graduate school, senior high school, junior high school, elementary school and below
  3. 2. Gender was measured as two levels: male vs. female.
  4. 3. Visiting frequency was measured as two levels: first-time patients vs. returning patients.
  5. 4. Visiting time was measured as tow levels: morning vs. afternoon
  6. 5. Patient salary and living areas (in city residents vs. outside city residents) showed no statistically significant relationships with their perceived physical environments of the medical waiting rooms in the univariate analysis and were not shown in this table.
  7. 6. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001