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Table 4 Associations between patient, area and GP level covariates and hospital admissions and mortality in PCT 2

From: Do the UK government's new Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) scores adequately measure primary care performance? A cross-sectional survey of routine healthcare data

  Emergency admission
  Asthma Cancer COPD CHD
  (N = 35) (N = 250) (N = 197) (N = 318)
Patient-level; OR (95% CI)     
Female 1.96 (0.99–4.17) 0.74 (0.57–0.94) 0.92 (0.70–1.23) 0.54 (0.43–0.68)
5-year age group 0.92 (0.85–1.00) 1.38 (1.33–1.44) 1.43 (1.37–1.50) 1.38 (1.34–1.43)
Area-level; OR (95% CI)     
Income domain* 1.27 (1.00–1.58) 1.14 (1.03–1.25) 1.42 (1.28–1.57) 1.16 (1.07–1.26)
GP-level; OR (95% CI)     
Additional Services* 0.99 (0.96–1.04) 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 1.00 (0.98–1.01)
Clinical* 0.87 (0.71–1.06) 0.86 (0.79–0.93) 0.94 (0.86–1.02) 1.00 (0.93–1.09)
Organisational* 0.96 (0.90–1.04) 1.00 (0.97–1.04) 1.05 (1.01–1.09) 1.01 (0.98–1.04)
Variance (95% CI)     
Area-level 0.04 (0.00–0.58) 0.00 (0.00–0.12) 0.01 (0.00–0.06) 0.01 (0.00–0.04)
GP-level 0.02 (0.00–0.87) 0.01 (0.00–0.17) 0.01 (0.00–0.13) 0.01 (0.00–0.06)
  Emergency admission Mortality
  Diabetes Stroke Other All causes
  (N = 58) (N = 160) (N = 6,847) (N = 1,423)
Patient-level; OR (95% CI)     
Female 0.72 (0.42–1.22) 0.85 (0.62–1.16) 1.10 (1.05–1.16) 0.71 (0.64–0.80)
5-year age group 1.15 (1.09–1.23) 1.62 (1.52–1.72) 1.12 (1.11–1.12) 1.69 (1.66–1.73)
Area-level; OR (95% CI)     
Income domain* 1.15 (0.95–1.38) 1.17 (1.03–1.31) 1.13 (1.10–1.16) 1.11 (1.06–1.17)
GP-level; OR (95% CI)     
Additional Services* 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 1.02 (1.00–1.05) 1.01 (1.00–1.01) 1.01 (0.99–1.02)
Clinical* 1.11 (0.92–1.37) 0.95 (0.86–1.07) 0.94 (0.92–0.97) 0.98 (0.92–1.05)
Organisational* 0.98 (0.92–1.06) 0.99 (0.95–1.04) 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 0.99 (0.97–1.01)
Variance (95% CI)     
Area-level 0.02 (0.00–0.11) 0.01 (0.00–0.08) 0.01 (0.00–0.02) 0.02 (0.00–0.06)
GP-level 0.02 (0.00–0.44) 0.02 (0.00–0.19) 0.01 (0.00–0.02) 0.04 (0.01–0.13)
  1. N = the number of admissions/deaths (out of 156,758); *Results per quartile increase in score