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BMC Health Services Research

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Understanding the implementation of complex interventions in health care: the normalization process model

  • Carl May1Email author,
  • Tracy Finch1,
  • Frances Mair2,
  • Luciana Ballini3,
  • Christopher Dowrick4,
  • Martin Eccles1,
  • Linda Gask5,
  • Anne MacFarlane6,
  • Elizabeth Murray7,
  • Tim Rapley1,
  • Anne Rogers5,
  • Shaun Treweek8, 9,
  • Paul Wallace10,
  • George Anderson2,
  • Jo Burns7 and
  • Ben Heaven1
BMC Health Services Research20077:148

Received: 09 January 2007

Accepted: 19 September 2007

Published: 19 September 2007

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Open Peer Review reports

Pre-publication versions of this article and author comments to reviewers are available by contacting

Original Submission
9 Jan 2007 Submitted Original manuscript
16 Feb 2007 Reviewed Reviewer Report - Susan Michie
1 Mar 2007 Reviewed Reviewer Report - Bronagh Blackwood
16 May 2007 Author responded Author comments - Carl May
Resubmission - Version 2
16 May 2007 Submitted Manuscript version 2
19 Sep 2007 Editorially accepted
19 Sep 2007 Article published 10.1186/1472-6963-7-148

How does Open Peer Review work?

Open peer review is a system where authors know who the reviewers are, and the reviewers know who the authors are. If the manuscript is accepted, the named reviewer reports are published alongside the article. Pre-publication versions of the article and author comments to reviewers are available by contacting All previous versions of the manuscript and all author responses to the reviewers are also available.

You can find further information about the peer review system here.

Authors’ Affiliations

Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
General Practice and Primary Care, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
Agenzia Sanitaria Regionale – Regione Emilia Romagna, Bologna, Italy
School of Population, Community and Behavioural Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
National Primary Care Research and Development Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Department of General Practice, Clinical Science Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
Community Health Sciences Division, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
Nasjonalt Kunnskapssenter for Helsetjenesten, Oslo, Norway
UK Clinical Research Network, London, UK