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Table 3 Variables associated with inappropriate use of emergency services (15 – 49 years-old): crude and multivariable analysis. Pelotas, Brazil, 2004

From: Demand for emergency health service: factors associated with inappropriate use

Variables N Prevalence (%) Crude PR (95% CI) P Adjusted PR (95% CI) P
First level       
Sex     <0.001   <0.001
Male 513 20.9 1.00   1.00  
Female 526 31.8 1.52 (1.23 – 1.88)   1.52 (1.23 – 1.88)  
Skin color     0.09   0.11
White 793 25.1 1.00   1.00  
Non-white 246 30.5 1.21 (0.97 – 1.52)   1.20 (0.96 – 1.50)  
Marital status     0.15   0.12
Living without a partner 588 28.6 1.16 (0.95 – 1.42)   1.17 (0.96 – 1.44)  
Living with a partner 452 24.7 1.00   1.00  
Second level       
Level of education – years of formal education     0.13*   0.15*
0 – 4 210 21.0 1.00   1.00  
5–8 493 28.0 1.34 (0.99 – 1.80)   1.35 (1.00 – 1.81)  
9 or more 336 27.5 1.31 (0.96 – 1.80)   1.31 (0.95 – 1.80)  
Third level       
Fourth level       
Visited PHC     0.02#   0.17#
Last year 517 30.4 1.00   1.00  
Longer than one year 234 23.5 0.77 (0.59 – 1.01) 0.06 0.79 (0.60 – 1.03) 0.08
Never went there 283 21.6 0.71 (0.55 – 0.92) 0.01 0.82 (0.57 – 1.17) 0.27
Regular doctor     0.19   0.12
No 243 27.4 1.19 (0.92 – 1.54)   1.23 (0.95 – 1.60)  
Yes 797 23.1 1.00   1.00  
The reason for choosing the emergency service was that he/she was unable to make an appointment elsewhere     0.009   0.04
No 964 25.4 1.00   1.00  
Yes 76 38.2 1.50 (1.10 – 2.04)   1.38 (1.01 – 1.89)  
Number of shifts per day at the PHC service     0.004#   0.009#
One shift 116 31.9 1.64 (1.11 – 2.42) 0.01 1.63 (1.11 – 2.40) 0.01
Two shifts 548 29.9 1.54 (1.13 – 2.10) 0.006 1.53 (1.12 – 2.08) 0.007
Three shifts 201 19.4 1.00   1.00  
Did not use the PHC 125 18.6 0.96 (0.60 – 1.52) 0.85 0.99 (0.61 – 1.61) 0.97
Doctor at the regular place of care refuses to attend without previous appointment     0.009   0.04
No 947 25.4 1.00   1.00  
Yes 55 40.0 1.58 (1.12 – 2.22)   1.44 (1.02 – 2.02)  
Subject was referred by a health worker     0.03   0.05
No 866 27.6 1.44 (1.04 – 1.99)   1.40 (1.01 – 1.94)  
Yes 172 19.2 1.00   1.00  
  1. PR: prevalence ratio, CI: confidence interval, * Test for linear trend, # Test for heterogeneity, PHC: primary health care, Variables in the third level and variables not presented in the first and fourth level had p-value > 0,2 and were excluded form the final model