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Table 3 Influence of socioeconomic factors on the decision to call an ambulance in unnecessary situations.

From: Influence of socioeconomic factors on medically unnecessary ambulance calls

Scenario 1 Marginal effect 95% CI P-value
Price 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.026#
Gender 0.024 0.000 0.048 0.046
Age 0.039 0.031 0.046 0.000
Family (living alone) 0.055 0.002 0.107 0.015
Household income 0.002 -0.006 0.011 0.614
Possess a car -0.044 -0.075 -0.014 0.002
History of ambulance use 0.015 -0.009 0.038 0.216
Hesitation to call an ambulance -0.054 -0.078 -0.031 0.000
Knowledge of primary emergency medical center open at night -0.012 -0.038 0.014 0.360
Knowledge of emergency medical information center 0.001 -0.030 0.032 0.952
Knowledge of private patient transport service 0.033 -0.017 0.083 0.148
Log likelihood -512    
Pseudo R2 0.174    
Chi-square 215.6    
  (P < 0.001)    
Scenario 2 Marginal effect 95% CI P-value
Price 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.132
Gender 0.047 0.020 0.074 0.001
Age 0.025 0.017 0.033 0.000
Family (living with at least one child) 0.009 -0.018 0.037 0.504
Household income -0.016 -0.026 -0.007 0.001
Possess a car -0.071 -0.105 -0.037 0.000
History of ambulance use 0.039 0.012 0.065 0.004
Hesitation to call an ambulance -0.030 -0.056 -0.004 0.027
Knowledge of primary emergency medical center open at night -0.042 -0.072 -0.012 0.005
Knowledge of emergency medical information center 0.001 -0.035 0.036 0.972
Knowledge of private patient transport service 0.015 -0.036 0.066 0.550
Log likelihood -520    
Pseudo R2 0.148    
Chi-square 180.3    
  (P < 0.001)    
Scenario 3 Marginal effect 95% CI P-value
Price 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.326
Gender 0.030 0.013 0.048 0.001
Age 0.013 0.007 0.018 0.000
Family (living with at least one elderly person) 0.013 -0.026 0.051 0.484
Household income -0.006 -0.011 0.000 0.060
Possess a car -0.023 -0.045 -0.002 0.018
History of ambulance use -0.001 -0.018 0.015 0.860
Hesitation to call an ambulance -0.024 -0.041 -0.007 0.006
Knowledge of primary emergency medical center open at night -0.024 -0.045 -0.004 0.013
Knowledge of emergency medical information center 0.013 -0.013 0.040 0.276
Knowledge of private patient transport service 0.014 -0.021 0.050 0.374
Log likelihood -313    
Pseudo R2 0.120    
Chi-square 85.7    
  (P < 0.001)    
  1. CI: confidence interval.
  2. # The marginal effect of price (= -8.16 × 10-7, standard error; 3.65 × 10-7, z-score; -2.22) was very small but statistically significant in Scenario 1.