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Table 5 Adjusted odds of operative mortality following heart transplantation at volume non-compliant hospitals.

From: Payer leverage and hospital compliance with a benchmark: a population-based observational study

COvariate Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval
Volume non-compliant 1.19 0.92 – 1.54
Female 1.57 1.23 – 2.00
Black 0.88 0.58 – 1.36
Insurance type   
   Medicare 1 (ref.) --
   Medicaid 0.77 0.61 – 0.98
   Private 0.58 0.40 – 0.86
Operative year   
   1993 1 (ref.) --
   1994 1.15 0.72 – 1.85
   1995 0.61 0.32 – 1.19
   1996 0.78 0.44 – 1.39
   1997 0.75 0.48 – 1.17
   1998 0.51 0.28 – 0.95
   1999 1.18 0.72 – 1.92
   2000 0.86 0.49 – 1.52
   2001 0.51 0.27 – 0.96
   2002 0.73 0.38 – 1.38
   2003 0.63 0.34 – 1.16
Elixhauser codes   
   Diabetes mellitus, complex 0.54 0.18 – 1.68
   Renal failure 1.09 0.59 – 1.98
   Liver disease 6.05 2.04 – 18.00
   Peripheral vascular disorders 1.43 0.75 – 2.71
   Paralysis 1.49 0.31 – 7.08
   Neurologic disorders 2.78 1.74 – 4.44
   Chronic pulmonary disease 0.66 0.41 – 1.08
   Hypothyroidism 0.61 0.29 – 1.30
   Rheumatoid arthritis 0.51 0.06 – 4.50
   Coagulopathy 3.23 2.48 – 4.21
   Weight loss 1.25 0.55 – 2.87
   Fluid and electrolyte disorders 1.03 0.80 – 1.32
   Blood loss anemia 0.59 0.14 – 2.55
   Deficiency anemias 0.09 0.02 – 0.39
   Psychoses 0.43 0.05 – 3.37
   Depression 0.35 0.08 – 1.52
Hospital census region   
   Northeast 1 (ref.) --
   North-central 0.48 0.34 – 0.67
   South 0.43 0.31 – 0.60
   West 0.37 0.25 – 0.56
Hospital bedsize   
   Small 1 (ref.) --
   Medium 0.50 0.19 – 1.28
   Large 0.49 0.21 – 1.15
For-profit 6.26 0.33 – 119.38
Private 1.13 0.85 – 1.50
Teaching 0.97 0.69 – 1.35