Skip to main content

Table 2 Psychological features by race and ethnicity*.

From: Racial and ethnic disparities in the control of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Southwest American veterans with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Outcomes in Veterans Study

  Non-Hispanic white (n = 226) Hispanic (n = 72) African-American (n = 35) P-value
Preference for English 98.7% 83.3% 100% <0.001
Education (years) 13.7 ± 2.8 11.9 ± 4.0 12.9 ± 2.0 <0.001
Cognitive Deficit mean§ 28.3 ± 2.0 26.4 ± 3.5 27.7 ± 1.8 <0.001
Family Behavior Checklist score|| 6.16 ± 6.92 6.33 ± 6.88 8.26 ± 5.92 NS
Diabetes Knowledge score 67.4 ± 13.9 56.3 ± 17.0 62.1 ± 16.8 <0.001
Depression score** 7.60 ± 6.58 9.42 ± 7.14 6.03 ± 5.63 0.03
Diabetes Care Profile scores††
Problems with glycemic control 3.98 ± 0.66 3.93 ± 0.56 4.27 ± 0.58 0.02
Social and personal impact 3.47 ± 0.82 3.39 ± 0.84 3.73 ± 0.72 NS
Positive attitudes 3.10 ± 0.72 2.99 ± 0.72 3.12 ± 0.94 NS
Negative attitudes 3.53 ± 0.80 3.24 ± 0.90 3.80 ± 0.83 0.008
Perceived ability to do self-care 3.00 ± 0.74 3.00 ± 0.87 3.53 ± 0.74 0.001
Importance of self-care 4.24 ± 0.58 4.29 ± 0.62 4.45 ± 0.66 NS
Adherence to self-care 3.49 ± 0.74 3.51 ± 0.77 3.80 ± 0.79 NS
Adherence to diet 2.65 ± 0.94 2.65 ± 0.96 3.08 ± 0.81 0.04
Barriers to taking medications 4.57 ± 0.45 4.55 ± 0.56 4.59 ± 0.52 NS
Barriers to exercise 4.04 ± 0.80 4.04 ± 0.80 4.37 ± 0.64 NS
Barriers to monitoring 4.63 ± 0.46 4.50 ± 0.60 4.38 ± 0.83 NS
Understanding of objectives 3.44 ± 0.81 3.22 ± 0.81 3.57 ± 0.83 NS
Perception of long-term benefits 4.38 ± 0.68 4.29 ± 0.86 4.15 ± 0.96 NS
Social support 3.82 ± 0.60 3.87 ± 0.63 3.94 ± 0.63 NS
  1. * Values are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated
  2. Brown-Forsythe test
  3. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks
  4. §Mini-Mental State Examination: 30-point scale, higher score more favorable
  5. ||Scale ranging from -44 to 38, higher score more favorable
  6. University of Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test: percentage correct, higher score more favorable
  7. **Geriatric Depression Scale: 30-point scale, lower score more favorable
  8. †† Scale ranging from 1 to 5, higher score more favorable