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Table 1 Data of patients included in the study (n = 648).

From: Non-specific low back pain in primary care in the Spanish National Health Service: a prospective study on clinical outcomes and determinants of management

Data Number (%) Mean (SD) or median (25th–75th range)
Sex   
   Female 338 (52.2)  
   Male 310 (47.8)  
Age, mean (SD)   46.45 (15.5)
Education level   
   No studies 14 (2.1)  
   Did not finish basic studies 153 (23.6)  
   Basic studies 205 (31.6)  
   Medium-level studies 162 (25.0)  
   Higher level studies 97 (15.0)  
   Missing 17 (2.6)  
Living conditions   
   Living alone 57 (8.8)  
   Living with someone 500 (77.2)  
   Institutionalized 5 (0.8)  
   Missing 86 (13.2)  
Severity of low back pain (VAS); mean (SD)   5.89 (2.2)
Leg pain   
   Yes 383 (59.1)  
Severity of leg pain (VAS); median (range)   4.3 (2.6–6.7)
Disability (Roland Morris Questionnaire); mean (SD)   11.30 (5.5)
Quality of life (EuroQol); mean (SD)   0.49 (0.2)
Previous episodes of low back pain   
   None 209 (33.5)  
   1 or 2 180 (28.8)  
   3 or more 235 (37.7)  
Duration of current episode (days); median (IQR)   4 (2–10)
Chronicity   
   Acute 500 (77.2)  
   Subacute 118 (18.2)  
   Chronic 28 (4.3)  
Patients visiting the recruiting physician for the first time 393 (60.6)  
Patients visiting the recruiting physician at follow-up 255 (39.4)  
Diagnostic tests 112 (17.3)  
X-rays on the first visit 101 (15.6)  
CT scan on the first visit 14 (2.2)  
MRI on the first visit 16 (2.5)  
Neurophysiological tests on first visit 9 (1.4)  
Visits to emergency room 64 (9.9)  
Working status:   
   Housewife, retired, other 281 (43.4)  
   Workers 367 (56.6)  
Self-employed 58 (8.9)  
Employed by others 309 (47.7)  
Being on sick leave 158 (24.4)*  
SLR test   
   Not done 243 (37.5)  
   < 30 88 (13.6)  
   30–60 119 (18.4)  
   > 60 198 (30.6)  
Prescription of medication 594 (91.7)  
   NSAIDs 370 (57.1)  
   Analgesics 212 (32.7)  
   Muscle relaxants 97 (15)  
   Corticoids 21 (3.2)  
   Gastric protectors 14 (2.2)  
   Anxiolitics 30 (4.6)  
Referrals 62 (9.6)  
   Orhopedic surgery 34 (54.8)  
   Rehabilitation 17 (27.4)  
   Neurosurgery 5 (8.1)  
   Other 11 (17.7)  
  1. *Sick leave was only possible to check among the 367 workers included in the study. The 158 subjects on sick leave represent 43.07% of them.
  2. Percentage of individuals using each kind of medication treatment among those using medication treatment.