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Table 4 Recommendations for lifestyle interventions in recent major guidelines for hypertension

From: Methods underpinning national clinical guidelines for hypertension: describing the evidence shortfall

Guideline Weight reduction Diet Salt restriction Alcohol restriction Smoking cessation Exercise
  Recommended weight Reduce saturated fat Increase fruit & vegetables Other recommendations Recommended max. daily intake Recommended max. daily intake (ethanol)   
CMA Y (BMI 20–25 kg/m2) No specific recommendation Y (3–7 g/day) ≤17.4 g/day (women) ≤27.0 g/day (men) Y 50–60 mins. aerobic exercise 3–4 times per week
WHO Y if overweight Y Y Increase fish consumption Y (≤ 6 g/day) ≤10–20 g/day (women) ≤ 20–30 g/day (men) Y 30–45 mins. aerobic exercise 3–4 times /week
VHA Y (if > 10% of ideal body weight) Y Y Increase cereal consumption Y (≤ 6 g/day) ≤14 g/day (women) ≤ 28 g/day (men) Y 30–45 mins. aerobic exercise 3–5 times/week
SIGN Y (BMI < 25 kg/m2) Y Y   Y (<5 g/day) ≤15.8 g/day (women) ≤ 23.7 g/day (men) Y 30–45 mins. aerobic exercise most days
ESH Y Y Y Increase fish consumption Y (4.7–5.8 g/day) ≤10–20 g/day (women) ≤ 20–30 g/day (men) Y 30–45 mins. aerobic exercise 3–5 times/week
ICSI Y if overweight Y Y Increase low fat dairy food consumption Y (<6 g/day) ≤14 g/day (women) ≤ 28 g/day (men) Y 30–45 mins. aerobic exercise 3–4 times/week
JNC Y (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2) Y Y Increase low fat dairy food consumption Y (≤ 6 g/day) ≤14 g/day (women) ≤ 28 g/day (men) Not discussed ≥30 mins. aerobic exercise most days
SA Y (BMI < 25 kg/m2) Y Y Increase fibre, unrefined carbohydrates Y ≤24 g/day Y 30 mins. aerobic exercise 3–5 times per week
BHS Y (BMI 20–25 kg/m2) Y Y Reduce total fat Y (< 6 g/day) ≤15.8 g/day ≤ 23.7 g/day (men) Y > 30 mins. aerobic exercise most days
NICE Y Healthy, low calorie diet Y (<6 g/day) < 14 units/wk (women) < 21 units/week (men) Y 30–60 mins. 3–5 times/week