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Table 2 Baseline characteristics for the subgroup with low literacy.

From: A heart failure self-management program for patients of all literacy levels: A randomized, controlled trial [ISRCTN11535170]

Variable Control (n = 24) Intervention (n = 24) P value
Mean Age, years (SD) 65 (10) 68 (8) 0.38
African American, % 71 71 1.0
Male, % 46 71 0.079
Education, years (SD) 8.6 (2.9) 6.3 (2.9) 0.009
Income <15,000/yr, % 83 88 0.33
Medicaid, % 45 45 1.0
Medicare, % 75 79 0.73
Inadequate Literacy, % 39 42 0.43
Hypertension, % 92 83 0.38
Diabetes, % 63 71 0.54
Creatinine, mg/dl 1.4 1.3 0.43
Time with heart failure, mean years (SD) 7 (7) 8 (11) 0.63
NYHA class, %    0.55
   II 58 50  
   III 42 46  
   IV 0 4  
Systolic dysfunction, % 38 42 0.55
Medications, %    
ACEI or ARB, % 83 79 0.14
b-blocker, % 71 42 0.04
Digoxin, % 17 21 0.39
Knowledge, mean percent 46 49 0.40
Self-efficacy, mean score 21 21 0.78
Daily weight measurement, % 17 4 0.16
HFQOL score, mean score (range 0–105) 51.9 42 0.11
  1. NYHA: New York Heart Association; ACEI: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor; HFQOL: Heart Failure-Related Quality of Life