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Table 1 Baseline characteristics.

From: A heart failure self-management program for patients of all literacy levels: A randomized, controlled trial [ISRCTN11535170]

Variable Control (n = 64) Intervention (n = 59) P value
Mean Age, years (SD) 62 (11) 63 (9) 0.37
African American, % 55 54 0.96
Male, % 41 58 0.059
Education, years (SD) 9.9 (2.6) 9.1 (3.2) 0.17
Income <15,000/yr, % 67 69 0.60
Medicaid, % 33 34 0.90
Medicare, % 72 71 0.61
Inadequate Literacy, % 39 42 0.43
Hypertension, % 89 86 0.66
Diabetes, % 52 59 0.39
Creatinine, mg/dl 1.3 1.2 0.19
Time with heart failure, mean years (SD) 7 (8) 6 (9) 0.75
NYHA class, %    0.66
   II 47 53  
   III 51 40  
   IV 2 7  
Systolic dysfunction, % 44 39 0.73
Medications, %    
ACEI or ARB 69 78 0.25
β-blocker 72 54 0.04
Digoxin 19 25 0.39
Knowledge, mean percent 57 55 0.67
Self-efficacy, mean score 22 22 0.64
Daily weight measurement, % 15 13 0.64
HFQOL score, mean score (range 0–105) 57 45 0.0028
  1. NYHA: New York Heart Association; ACEI: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor; HFQOL: Heart Failure-Related Quality of Life