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Table 4 Obstetric practices during vaginal delivery (including vacuum and forceps delivery) in 1999 and 2003 by hospital in women surveyed

From: Evidence-informed obstetric practice during normal birth in China: trends and influences in four hospitals

  Specialist City MCH District County
Vaginal deliveries (women) 1999 2003 1999 2003 1999 2003 1999 2003
  n = 75 n = 77 N = 82 n = 95 n = 41 n = 68 n = 105 n = 116
Avoid as routine†         
Episiotomy (%) 70 (93) 74 (96) 74 (90) 94 (99)* 36 (88) 63 (93) 68 (65) 88 (76)
Pubic shaving 0 (0) 0 (0) 82 (100) 43 (45)** 39 (95) 68 (100) 98 (93) 102 (88)
Rectal examination 71 (95) 0 (0)** 0 (0) 0 (0) 39 (95) 68 (100) 103 (98) 105 (91)*
Electronic FHR 75 (100) 75 (97) 76 (93) 87 (92) 37 (90) 65 (96) 1 (1) 31 (27)**
Enemas 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 22 (54) 2 (3)** 0 (0) 5 (4)
Encourage as routine†         
Companionship during labour1 6 (8) 12 (16) 30 (37) 45 (49) 38 (93) 62 (93) 8 (17) 9 (9)
Mobility during labour1 27 (37) 60 (78)** 19 (23) 47 (51)** 23 (56) 19 (28)** 8 (17) 31 (29)
Non-supine position in Labour 0(0) 1(1) 0(0) 1(1) 0(0) 0(0) 3(3) 1(0.9)
  1. Procedures categorized with reference to research evidence from Cochrane Systematic Reviews
  2. 1 Some women were directly sent to delivery room, so for companionship and mobility the sample size at the City MCH, District and County hospital in the follow-up study is 92, 67 and 106 respectively in 2003. In the 1999 study, the sample size of the Specialist and the County hospitals was 74 and 46 respectively.
  3. * P-value < 0.05 (Chi2 test)
  4. ** P-value < 0.01 (Chi2 test)
  5. Data source: exit interviews with postpartum women