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Table 1 Organization of intensive care units in Japan, USA and UK

From: Profit and loss analysis for an intensive care unit (ICU) in Japan: a tool for strategic management

No of ICUs Our hospital (2003) Japan (n = 22) (1993–1995) USA (n = 42) (1993–1995) UK (n = 17) (1993–1995)
Average number of beds per ICU (% of total beds) 6 (0.8%) 8.0 (1.0 %) 22.0 (4.6%) 4.3
Full-time medical doctors yes 95.4% 100% 57%
Nurse: patient ratio 1:1 1:1~1:2 1:1  
Average ICU LOS (days) 3.8 6.2 4.7 4.0
Average patient age 50.7 58.3 59.4 60.6
Gender (male: female) 61.4:38.4 64.5:33.5 55.2:44.8 58.4:41.6
Severity of illness (average APACHE III score at day 1)   52.5 50.0 56.8
Post-operative patients (%) 42.4 59.2 42.3 44.1
ICU mortality (%) 6.7   10.0 17.8
Reference   6 6 4,5