Skip to main content

Table 3 Actual prescribing in relation to recommendations

From: Heart failure guidelines and prescribing in primary care across Europe

Spironolactone in general not to be given in combination with ACE    ACE + spironolactone
Recommendation Countries
(% of total)
Year of publication
Range (mean)
(%) Drug use
% patients with OR (95%CI)
     univariate multivariate
   All countries* 10381
(100%)
  6.6   
   Warning (Identical) NL, Cz, F, D, Swe
(36,5%)
1995–1998
(1997)
5,7 0.78
(0.66–0.91)
0.74
(0.63–.87)
no warning/no recommendation Remaining
(63,5%)
1998
(1998)
7,2 1 1
β-blockers are indicated only for patients with IDCM (idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy)    β-blocker
   All countries* 10381
(100%)
  33.8   
   Restricted indication (identical) Cz, H, CH, UK
(28.6%)
1998
(1998)
40.4 1 1
   No restriction Remaining
(71.4%)
1995–1998
(1997)
31.1 0.67
(0.61–0.73)
0.69
(0.63–0.76)
  1. *Poland was excluded from the analysis, because no GL information was available.
  2. includes all countries without guideline before 2000 and guidelines without recommendation. In the case of NL and Italy, the specific guideline for GPs has been used.