Skip to main content

Table 3 Multivariate logistic regression of sociodemographic, health care, and health status factors on frequent and severe pain

From: Patient involvement in medical decision-making and pain among elders: physician or patient-driven?

Variable (reference group) Frequent pain OR (95% CI) Severe pain OR (95% CI)
Sociodemographics   
Age 0.99 (0.97, 1.00) 1.00 (0.98, 1.02)
Male (vs. female) 0.81 (0.67, 0.98)3 0.78 (0.54, 1.14)
Race/ethnicity   
   Hispanic (vs. non-Hispanic white) 0.74 (0.54, 1.01) 0.74 (0.44, 1.26)
   Other (vs. non-Hispanic white) 0.84 (0.56, 1.26) 2.28 (1.24, 4.21)2
Less than high school grad. (vs. grad.) 0.97 (0.78, 1.20) 1.08 (0.76, 1.55)
Married (vs. single) 0.92 (0.77, 1.10) 1.00 (0.72, 1.39)
Residence   
   Rural (vs. urban) 0.77 (0.64, 0.92)3 0.89 (0.65, 1.23)
   Frontier (vs. urban) 0.86 (0.66, 1.12) 0.78 (0.48, 1.28)
Income   
   $10–20,000 (vs. < $10,000) 1.06 (0.81, 1.39) 0.81 (0.52, 1.26)
   $21–30,000 (vs. < $10,000) 1.02 (0.75, 1.38) 0.96 (0.57, 1.62)
   $31,000 and higher (vs. < $10,000) 0.90 (0.67, 1.20) 0.87 (0.52, 1.46)
   Missing (vs. < $10,000) 0.95 (0.72, 1.25) 0.99 (0.63, 1.56)
Health care   
Insurance   
   Medicare (vs. uninsured) 0.69 (0.41, 1.16) 0.41 (0.19, 0.86)3
   Medicaid (vs. uninsured) 0.72 (0.44, 1.18) 0.35 (0.17, 0.71)2
   Medicare plus other. (vs. uninsured) 0.85 (0.52, 1.39) 0.31 (0.15, 0.64)2
   Other private/gov. ins. (vs. uninsured) 0.64 (0.37, 1.09) 0.34 (0.15, 0.76)2
No. of physician visits past 6 months 1.02 (1.01, 1.04)2 1.02 (1.00, 1.03)
Physician-driven participation index 0.99 (0.91, 1.06) 1.14 (0.99, 1.30)
Patient-driven participation index 0.82 (0.75, 0.89)3 0.93 (0.80, 1.09)
Tenure with doctor   
   Less than 1 year (vs. no personal doctor) 0.92 (0.64, 1.33) 0.51 (0.27, 0.98)3
   1–2 years (vs. no personal doctor) 0.95 (0.70, 1.30) 0.74 (0.43, 1.25)
   3–4 years (vs. no personal doctor) 0.87 (0.64, 1.18) 0.56 (0.33, 0.96)3
   5 or more years (vs. no personal doctor) 0.92 (0.71, 1.19) 0.65 (0.42, 0.99)3
Health status   
No. of comorbidities   
   1 (vs. none) 1.06 (0.87, 1.27) 1.18 (0.84, 1.66)
   2 (vs. none) 0.96 (0.74, 1.25) 1.50 (0.99, 2.28)
   3 or more (vs. none) 1.01 (0.71, 1.43) 1.51 (0.90, 2.50)
Ever diagnosed with arthritis (vs. never) 3.62 (3.03, 4.33)1 1.54 (1.01, 2.35)3
SF-12 mental component score 0.99 (0.98, 1.00) 0.98 (0.97, 1.00)
General health status   
   Excellent (vs. poor) 0.14 (0.09, 0.22)1 0.49 (0.20, 1.19)
   Very Good (vs. poor) 0.30 (0.21, 0.41)1 0.24 (0.14, 0.42)1
   Good (vs. poor) 0.41 (0.31, 0.54)1 0.33 (0.21, 0.50)1
   Fair (vs. poor) 0.69 (0.52, 0.92)2 0.56 (0.39, 0.81)3
  1. 1 p < 0.0001, 2 p < 0.01, 3 p < 0.05
  2. note: Analyses of severe pain were limited to those with frequent pain.
\