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Table 1 Patient and facility characteristics by transfer type

From: The association between clinical integration of care and transfer of veterans with acute coronary syndromes from primary care VHA hospitals

Variable Overall for study sample N = 755 Not transferred N = 436 Transferred to tertiary VHA hospital N = 237 Transferred to tertiary private hospital N = 82 p-value*
Patient age 65 and over 58.0% 63.1% 52.3% 48.8% 0.005
Prior medical history
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 37.1% 40.6% 31.9% 33.7% 0.067
Bleeding disorder 3.6% 2.1% 5.5% 6.2% 0.035
Smoker 31.6% 26.8% 41.8% 27.2% <0.001
Prior percutaneous coronary intervention 15.2% 11.7% 21.5% 15.8% 0.003
Chronic heart failure 23.0% 28.9% 13.1% 18.8% <0.001
Course of index hospital admission
ST segment elevation on EKG 17.8% 12.8% 19.0% 39.0% <0.001
Cardiac enzymes abnormal on presentation 52.5% 52.0% 46.4% 71.3% <0.001
Do not resuscitate during hospitalization 5.3% 6.7% 2.1% 5.2% 0.039
In-hospital event** 47.3% 37.8% 62.9% 52.4% <0.001
Distance, market and integration variables
Distance from patient home zip code centroid to hospital >100 miles 18.1% 15.6% 21.1% 22.0% 0.128
Distance from primary VHA to tertiary VHA hospital in miles 281 270 285 326 0.045
Degree of market competition (1 = not competitive; 3 = highly competitive) 1.74 1.82 1.57 1.79 <0.001
VHA cardiologist on site 30.6% 29.8% 36.3% 19.5% 0.015
Tertiary VHA hospital has referral coordinator 54.7% 56.4% 60.8% 30.5% <0.001
Primary VHA hospital has referral coordinator 33.0% 28.9% 43.9% 24.4% <0.001
  1. * p-value obtained from ANOVA testing difference between means for patients not transferred, transferred to VHA tertiary hospital, or transferred to non-VHA tertiary hospital for continuous variables, chi-square test of inference for categorical variables
  2. ** Presence of at least one of the following adverse events during admission: angina persisting more than 24 hours after admission; a hypotensive episode; an episode of heart failure; cardiac arrest; or positive stress test during admission
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