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Table 3 Descriptive analyses for Kaohsiung elderly (n = 4,993)

From: Influence of social support on cognitive function in the elderly

Variable Mean (Std Dev) t-value [F-value] p-value Scheffe's
Gender+: Female 9.07(1.63) 13.02 < .0001  
   Male 9.60(1.12)    
Education++: Grade School or below (1) 9.26(1.47) [60.55] < .0001  
   High School (2) 9.80(0.76)    
   College or above (3) 9.81(0.89)    
Marital Status+: Married 9.52(1.18) -10.13 < .0001  
   Unmarried 9.04(1.70)    
Perceives positive support + : Yes 9.46(1.24) -4.60 < .0001  
No 9.23(1.56)    
Lives alone+:     
Yes 9.39(1.37) -0.45 0.66  
No 9.36(1.39)    
Feels lonely+     
   Strong (1) 9.49(1.25) [33.16] < .0001 1>2
   Some (2) 9.32(1.36)    1>3
   Little (3) 8.81(1.95)    2>3
Religion++     
   Buddhist (1) 9.32(2.04) [7.94] < .0001 5>1
   Traditional (2) 9.27(1.35)    5>2
   Christian (3) 9.58(0.95)    
   Catholic (4) 9.49(1.45)    
   Other (5) 9.63(1.02)    
Occupation++     
   White collar (1) 9.82(0.66) [41.59] < .0001 1>4; 1>2
   Blue collar (2) 9.41(1.39)    1>6; 1>3
   Farmer (3) 8.73(1.92)    4>6; 4>3
   Prof-Admin (4) 9.56(1.14)    5>6; 5>3
   Retired (5) 9.55(1.17)    2>6; 2>3
   Housewife (6) 9.10(1.58)    6>3
Reported Health Conditions+     
   Stroke: Yes 8.66(2.26) 4.12 < .0001  
No 9.38(1.36)    
   Hypertension: Yes 9.44(1.23) -3.03 < .0001  
No 9.32(1.49)    
   Cancer: Yes 9.82(0.39) -6.09 < .0001  
No 9.36(1.41)    
   Diabetes: Yes 9.37(1.31) -0.14 0.89  
No 9.36(1.42)    
   Heart Disease: Yes 9.52(1.24) -2.21 0.03  
No 9.35(1.42)    
   Parkinson's: Yes 8.00(2.56) 1.84 0.09  
No 9.36(1.40)    
   Depression: Yes 8.17(2.04) 2.03 0.07  
No 9.36(1.41)    
   Vision problem: Yes 9.10(1.79) 2.62 0.01  
No 9.38(1.38)    
   Hearing problem: Yes 9.55(1.41) -1.26 0.21  
No 9.36(1.06)    
   Dental problem: Yes 9.35(1.49) 0.07 0.94  
No 9.36(1.41)    
ADL+++ -0.27   < .0001  
IADL+++ -0.38   < .0001  
Age+++ -0.20   < .0001  
  1. 1. Higher ADL or IADL scores indicate more functional dependence. 2. +t-statistic used to compare mean SPMSQ scores in 2 groups defined by dichotomous covariates. 3. ++ANOVA used to test the differences in variance of SPMSQ scores among multiple groups. 4. +++Correlation analysis was used. 5. Statistical significance is being assessed at the 0.05 levels.