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Table 2 Forms of Health Service Use Among the Diabetes Cohort by Drug Treatment Categories

From: Barriers to self-monitoring of blood glucose among adults with diabetes in an HMO: A cross sectional study

  Managed Without Drugs (n = 1,346) Insulin-Managed (n = 1,428) Oral Sulfonylurea-Managed (n = 1,791)
Health Service Use Characteristics Mean Visits % 1+ Visit Mean Visits % 1+ Visit Mean Visits % 1+ Visit
Total Health Center Visits* 10.1 ± 8.8 (95.9) 14.2 ± 11.9 (97.5) 10.7 ± 8.5 (97.5)
   Scheduled 8.8 ± 8.1 (94.1) 12.7 ± 10.9 (96.9) 9.6 ± 7.8 (96.5)
   Same Day or Urgent 1.3 ± 1.8 (58.6) 1.6 ± 2.2 (62.0) 1.2 ± 1.7 (56.8)
Specialist Visits (Endocrinology) 0.07 ± 0.46 (3.1) 0.22 ± 0.96 (8.1) 0.05 ± 0.39 (2.7)
Total Emergency Room 0.23 ± 0.63 (16.1) 0.43 ± 1.0 (25.3) 0.26 ± 0.72 (17.0)
Total Hospitalizations 0.17 ± 0.49 (13.1) 0.31 ± 0.77 (20.2) 0.19 ± 0.56 (13.2)
Diabetes Medications       
   Avg # Dispensing per Yr --- 7.3 ± 3.9 5.5 ± 3.5
   Avg Standard Monthly Dose (SMD) --- 1.3 ± 0.93 1.4 ± 1.3
Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose       
   Any (1+ Test Strip) 97 (7.2) 936 (65.6) 431 (24.1)
   Regular§ N/A N/A 320 (22.4) 123 (6.9)
Completed HbA 1c Tests ||       
Avg # HbA1c Tests per Yr 1.7 ± 0.9 2.2 ± 1.4 2.1 ± 1.3
Total # HbA1c Tests       
   0 705 (52.4) 317 (22.2) 418 (23.3)
   1 362 (26.9) 430 (30.1) 554 (30.9)
   2 177 (13.2) 315 (22.1) 389 (21.7)
   3+ 102 (7.6) 366 (25.6) 430 (24.0)
  1. * Based on AMRS records and includes face-to-face visits. † ER visits include those leading up to a hospitalization. ‡ Based on pharmacy dispensing data. Oral sulfonylurea-managed medication includes acetohexamide, chlorpropamide, glipizide, glyburide, tolazamide, and tolbutamide. §Regular self-monitoring of blood glucose is defined as 90 strips/quarter for those using insulin and 45 strips/quarter for those using oral sulfonylureas. || HbA1c test results reported only for those with at least one test. Managed without drugs n = 641; with insulin = 1,111; with oral sulfonylureas n = 1,373.