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Table 1 Characteristics of diabetic subjects according smoking status. Figures are frequencies (percent of row total).

From: Cigarette smoking, health status, socio-economic status and access to health care in diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional survey

   Never smoked (968) Current smoker (296) Ex-smoker (582) All P valuea
Sex Men 374 (40) 166 (18) 361 (39) 928 <0.001
  Women 594 (61) 130 (13) 221 (23) 971  
Age Group (Years)      
  < 45 117 (53) 60 (27) 42 (19) 219 <0.001
  45–54 126 (57) 49 (22) 45 (20) 221  
  55–64 281 (54) 78 (15) 151 (29) 520  
  65–74 263 (47) 78 (14) 200 (36) 556  
  ≥ 75 158 (48) 25 (8) 134 (41) 326  
  Not known 23 (40) 6 (11) 10 (18) 57  
Type of Diabetes      0.009
  Type 1 53 (47) 32 (28) 29 (25) 114  
  Type 2 902 (51) 261 (15) 547 (31) 1762  
  Not known 13 (57) 3 (13) 6 (26) 23  
Duration of Diabetes (years)     0.062
  0–4 253 (51) 90 (18) 141 (29) 493  
  5–9 224 (48) 86 (18) 146 (31) 469  
  10–14 176 (56) 40 (13) 91 (29) 314  
  15–19 100 (55) 18 (10) 57 (31) 183  
  ≥ 20 104 (50) 33 (16) 65 (31) 209  
  Not known 111 (48) 29 (13) 82 (36) 231  
Ethnic Group      <0.001
White European 336 (38) 189 (21) 368 (41) 895  
Afro-Caribbean 337 (64) 62 (12) 121 (23) 525  
African 121 (70) 10 (6) 39 (23) 172  
Other 148 (66) 29 (13) 43 (19) 224  
Not known 26 (31) 6 (7) 11 (13) 83  
Social Class      <0.001
Non-manual 292 (51) 82 (14) 202 (35) 576  
Manual 441 (49) 155 (17) 305 (34) 905  
Not known 235 (56) 59 (14) 75 (18) 418  
Education      0.020
Primary 250 (52) 65 (14) 155 (82) 481  
Secondary 421 (49) 155 (18) 269 (31) 857  
Technical 91 (51) 25 (14) 61 (84) 178  
University 132 (53) 40 (16) 74 (30) 248  
Not known 74 (55) 11 (8) 23 (17) 135  
Car Ownership      0.006
Owns Car 401 (48) 134 (16) 290 (35) 833  
None 522 (54) 154 (16) 278 (29) 975  
Not known 45 (50) 8 (9) 14 (15) 24  
Housing Tenure      <0.001
Owner 374 (56) 73 (11) 208 (31) 670  
Rented 520 (48) 207 (19) 345 (32) 1089  
Other and Not known 74 (53) 16 (11) 29 (21) 140  
  1. a from chi-square test after omitting 53 cases with 'not known' smoking status