Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 Multiple Tobit regression analyses with mean costs in 3-month period in € (year 2008 values) as dependent variable for total costs and by health care sector

From: Health care costs in the elderly in Germany: an analysis applying Andersen’s behavioral model of health care utilization

  Predictor variables Total costs Inpatient costs Outpatient costs Nursing costs
   b (SE) (p-value)a b (SE) (p-value)a b (SE) (p-value)a b (SE) (p-value)a
Predisposing factors Age (centered) 13.33** (4.33) (0.002) 9.51* (4.34) (0.028) 3.44* (1.41) (0.015) 2.70*** (0.62) (0.000)
Female gender (ref: male) 21.65 (55.06) (0.694) 53.46 (55.52) (0.336) -12.91 (17.89) (0.471) -2.70 (6.58) (0.682)
Marital status (ref: married)
Single 139.92 (148.79) (0.347) 208.98 (187.53) (0.265) -5.57 (45.92) (0.903) 30.72 (30.40) (0.312)
Divorced 103.85 (104.36) (0.320) 246.97 (139.17) (0.076) -23.71 (32.22) (0.462) 6.68 (15.69) (0.670)
Widowed 79.49 (74.99) (0.289) 146.20 (84.96) (0.085) -16.02 (23.70) (0.499) 6.57 (8.98) (0.465)
Education (ref: ≤ 9 years of schooling)
10-11 years of schooling -14.95 (69.77) (0.830) -46.73 (65.42) (0.475) 41.26 (23.29) (0.077) 9.80 (10.64) (0.357)
≥ 12 years of schooling -122.42 (76.53) (0.110) -160.88** (62.54) (0.010) -26.87 (25.35) (0.289) 2.40 (10.25) (0.815)
Body mass indexc 11.37* (5.37) (0.034) 1.74 (5.25) (0.740) 5.88** (1.75) (0.001) 0.54 (0.59) (0.362)
Enabling Incomeb c 0.02 (0.043) (0.653) 0.03 (0.04) (0.505) 0.02 (0.014) (0.107) -0.01 (0.01) (0.382)
Private health insurance (ref: statutory) 146.31 (106.51) (0.170) 175.79 (130.97) (0.180) 54.08 (34.31) (0.115) 0.85 (14.65) (0.954)
Lubben social network scalec 4.53 (5.17) (0.381) 5.92 (5.06) (0.242) -1.01 (1.68) (0.548) 0.31 (0.58) (0.596)
Need CIRS-G scorec 41.18*** (5.05) (0.000) 18.23*** (4.77) (0.000) 17.19*** (1.64) (0.000) 3.05*** (0.68) (0.000)
SF-12 Mental component summary (MCS)c -13.90*** (2.72) (0.000) -8.71*** (2.59) (0.001) -3.56*** (0.89) (0.000) -1.14*** (0.33) (0.001)
Averaged pseudo R2   0.003 0.008 0.004 0.007
Averaged Chi2   158.04 58.52 195.52 139.65
  1. aMultiple Tobit regression with marginal effects for the unconditional expected value E[y] of the dependent variable; bsquare root equivalence scale for 3 months; *p <0 .05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; SE = standard error; cthe variable was mean centered; N = 3,124 with multiple imputation, imputation steps 100, cycle length 200. The bold data denotes those effects being significant.