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Table 3 Service utilization and costs in € (year 2009 values) during 3-month period

From: Health care costs in the elderly in Germany: an analysis applying Andersen’s behavioral model of health care utilization

  Number (%) of users Mean costs in € per respondent (SD)  
Resource All Male Female All Male Female p-valuea
  n = 3,124 n = 1,481 n = 1,643 n = 3,124 n = 1,481 n = 1,643  
Inpatient care 272 (8.7) 129 (8.7) 143 (8.7) 393.3 (1850.3) 379.4 (1773.2) 405.9 (1917.6) 0.69
Outpatient care        
Outpatient physician services 2,973 (95.2) 1,403 (94.7) 1,570 (95.6) 174.2 (234.7) 169.2 (261.9) 178.7 (207.1) 0.26
Non-physician providers 633 (20.3) 255 (17.2) 378 (23.0) 29.3 (92.6) 24.6 (70.2) 33.5 (108.7) 0.01
Medical supplies and dental prostheses 750 (24.0) 315 (21.3) 435 (26.5) 68.6 (412.7) 65.1 (442.8) 71.7 (383.5) 0.66
Pharmaceuticals 2,688 (85.4) 1,262 (85.2) 1,406 (85.6) 171.1 (290.7) 182.9 (303.2) 160.5 (278.6) 0.03
Nursing care        
Formal 29 (0.9) 10 (0.7) 19 (1.2) 8.44 (155.7) 6.8 (174.8) 9.9 (136.2) 0.59
Informal 54 (1.7) 23 (1.6) 31 (1.9) 43.5 (547.1) 62.5 (715.6) 26.4 (327.1) 0.07
Any service or good 3,061 (98.0) 1,445 (97.6) 1,616 (98.4) 888.5 (2181.6) 890.5 (2225.0) 886.6 (2142.4) 0.96
  1. aSimple OLS regression with bootstrapped standard errors (4,000 replications).