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Table 2 Socio-demographic and health related sample characteristics (grouped by predisposing characteristics, enabling resources and need)

From: Health care costs in the elderly in Germany: an analysis applying Andersen’s behavioral model of health care utilization

Characteristics All Male Female p-valuea Missing values (%)
   n = 3,124 n = 1,481 n = 1,643   
Predisposing characteristics Age      
  Mean (SD) 69.6 (6.3) 70.0 (6.2) 69.3 (6.4) <0.01 0.0
  Range 57-84 58-83 57-84   
Marital status: n (%)      
  Single 105 (3.4) 54 (3.7) 51 (3.1) <0.01 1.2
  Married 2,217 (71.8) 1,244 (85.0) 973 (59.9)   
  Divorced 229 (7.4) 66 (4.5) 163 (10.0)   
  Widowed 536 (17.4) 99 (6.8) 437 (26.9)   
Education: n (%)      
  ≤ 9 years of schooling 2,038 (66.2) 916 (62.7) 1,122 (69.3) <0.01 1.4
  10-11 years of schooling 550 (17.9) 211 (14.5) 339 (20.9)   
  ≥ 12 years of schooling 491 (16.0) 333 (22.8) 158 (9.8)   
Body mass index: mean (SD) 28.7 (4.8) 28.9 (4.3) 28.5 (5.2) 0.02 0.1
Enabling resources Incomeb: mean (SD) 4,299.1 (2,053.9) 4,483.4 (2,070.9) 4,123.5 (2,022.7) <0.01 13.1
Health insurance: n (%)      
  Statutory 2,859 (92.2) 1,323 (90.0) 1,536 (94.2) <0.01 0.8
  Private 241 (7.8) 147 (10.0) 94 (5.8)   
  Lubben social network scale: mean (SD)      
    Family 9.4 (2.9) 9.3 (2.9) 9.4 (2.9) 0.31 0.5
    Friends 7.6 (3.4) 7.5 (3.5) 7.7 (3.3) 0.08 0.7
Need CIRS-G score: mean (SD) 6.9 (5.4) 7.1 (5.6) 6.6 (5.3) 0.02 16.8
SF-12 summary scores: mean (SD)      
  Mental component summary (MCS) score 47.8 (9.8) 49.0 (9.0) 46.7 (10.3) <0.01 3.3
  1. aDifferences in proportions: χ 2-test; differences in means: t-test; bsquare root equivalent scale for 3 months (SRES).