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Table 5 Changes in Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire scales in the three study units between T1 and T2

From: Interactions between lean management and the psychosocial work environment in a hospital setting – a multi-method study

Scale ED Ward-I Ward-II
  T1 (n =80) T2 (n =87) Diff Hyp T1 (n =17) T2 (n =16) Diff Hyp T1 (n = 32) T2 (n = 25) Diff Hyp
Quantitative demands 44.9 (15.8) 52.6 (16.4) 7.7 1 38.2 (15.0) 36.7 (15.3) -1.6 -1 45.7 (21.0) 40.5 (15.8) -5.2 -1
Tempo at work 75.2 (13.4) 74.0 (15.8) -1.2 1 59.6 (13.6) 64.2 (18.8) 4.6 -1 70.3 (18.7) 64.1 (12.9) -6.3 -1
Cognitive demands 78.5 (12.4) 69.4 (18.7) -9.1 -1 66.7 (16.4) 69.4 (14.3) 2.8 1 70.6 (13.0) 69.8 (18.4) -0.8 -1
Emotional demands 52.4 (21.3) 60.1 (16.6) 7.7 0 55.1 (23.0) 56.3 (22.8) 1.1 0 50.0 (19.1) 55.0 (21.7) 5 1
Hiding emotions* 74.6 (13.0) 67.1 (16.5) -7.5 0 71.1 (13.2) 70.6 (15.1) -0.5 0 67.4 (12.6) 69.1 (14.8) 1.6 0
Influence at work 39.6 (18.7) 38.5 (17.7) -1.1 0 40.4 (13.6) 50.0 (20.4) 9.6 1 33.6 (16.3) 45.5 (18.4) 11.9 1
Possibilities for development 72.9 (22.9) 70.8 (18.5) -2.1 -1 65.4 (15.6) 66.7 (20.4) 1.2 1 69.1 (14.5) 72.4 (18.4) 3.3 0
Meaning of work 86.9 (15.2) 76.2 (16.5) -10.7 -1 79.4 (13.2) 89.2 (10.4) 9.8 1 81.3 (13.5) 84.5 (11.6) 3.3 0
Commitment to the workplace 69.5 (20.2) 61.0 (20.1) -8.4 -1 59.6 (21.4) 74.2 (16.0) 14.6 1 51.6 (19.5) 60.0 (17.7) 8.4 1
Rewards at work 62.2 (18.7) 60.4 (15.5) -1.7 0 58.8 (20.6) 75.9 (16.6) 17.1 1 60.2 (18.9) 66.7 (12.6) 6.5 1
Predictability* 57.0 (15.7) 52.4 (15.7) -4.5 -1 53.7 ( 9.6) 65.8 (16.7) 12.2 1 49.2 (13.8) 51.5 (19.2) 2.3 0
Role clarity 75.0 (14.7) 67.2 (15.9) -7.8 -1 64.0 ( 9.8) 80.8 (10.4) 16.9 1 62.5 (15.9) 68.5 (14.5) 6 0
Role conflicts* 48.7 (13.5) 52.2 (13.0) 3.5 -1 41.9 ( 9.3) 46.3 (20.2) 4.3 1 48.8 (12.1) 54.1 ( 7.4) 5.2 0
Social support from colleagues 80.6 (10.5) 80.8 (13.3) 0.2 -1 73.1 (11.4) 79.3 ( 9.6) 6.2 1 76.5 (12.0) 74.2 (12.1) -2.3 1
Social support from supervisors 56.2 (29.7) 62.1 (23.2) 5.9 -1 64.7 (22.6) 78.1 (16.8) 13.4 1 60.5 (21.3) 58.2 (20.2) -2.4 1
Social community at work* 82.2 (8.7) 79.5 (11.5) -2.7 -1 77.3 (14.2) 85.3 ( 8.4) 8.1 1 80.2 (12.0) 81.9 (10.1) 1.7 1
Horizontal trust* 32.0 (14.8) 43.0 (15.9) 11 0 29.9 (17.4) 26.1 (13.7) -3.8 0 26.8 (14.2) 25.4 (14.2) -1.4 0
Vertical trust 66.0 (17.0) 64.9 (18.0) -1.0 -1 69.1 (12.6) 64.3 (21.3) -4.8 0 56.3 (20.3) 63.5 (12.7) 7.3 0
Justice and respect 55.4 (15.6) 57.9 (17.4) 2.5 0 64.7 (14.1) 60.0 (18.4) -4.7 1 51.6 (15.5) 63.5 (14.2) 12 1
  1. Note. Hyp = Expected direction, Diff = Numerical difference between the T1 and T2 values of the relevant scale, n denotes the number of respondents in each setting at that time. Scales denoted by an asterisk (*) were used in full while others were used partially.