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Table 5 Relationship between relevant supply factors and bed density using linear regression

From: Impact of a fixed price system on the supply of institutional long-term care: a comparative study of Japanese and German metropolitan areas

Explanatory variables Dependent variables
  Overall bed-densityaof IF 2010 Tokyo Change in bed-densityaof IF 2002-2010 Tokyo Overall bed-densityaof PNH 2008 Tokyo Overall bed-densityaof IF 2009 NRW Change in bed-densityaof 1999 -2009 NRW
  Coefficient (95% CI) β Coefficient (95% CI)b β Coefficient (95% CI) β Coefficient (95% CI) β Coefficient (95% CI) β
Constant -27.85 (-211.13; 155.43) - 22.69 (0.44; 44.94) - 43.80 (-3.66; 91.26) - 32.55 (15.18; 49.91) - 39.36 (26.61; 52.10) -
Explanatory variables           
Costs/cost relevant           
Average facility size (beds) 0.47 (0.03; 0.92) 0.20* c 0.03 (-0.02; 0.09) 0.10 0.11 (0.04; 0.18) 0.39** c -0.07 (-0.19; 0.05) -0.15 Eliminated -
LTA land price (¥1000 s)/ LTA rent-level for N -0.08 (-0.15;-0.02) -0.47* Eliminated - -0.01 (-0.02;0.00) -0.23 Eliminated - Eliminated -
LTA wage of elderly care nurse for T (¥1000 s)/ LTA duration for care nurse searchd for N (days) 0.22 (-0.59; 1.04) 0.05 Eliminated - -0.19 (-0.37;-0.01) -0.30* Eliminated - Eliminated -
Need           
LTA percent elderlye needing LTC -8.96 (-13.31;-4.61) -0.37*** -66.26 (-160.91; 23.40) -0.14 1.16 (0.04; 2.28) 0.32* 1.46 (0.63; 2.28) 0.45*** Eliminated -
LTA growth rate of elderlye needing LTC - - -0.82 (-1.87; 0.22) -0.14 0.88 (0.03;1.74) 0.25* Eliminated - Eliminated -
Profit/political intervention           
Initial bed-densitya of IF - - -0.21 (-0.30;-0.13) -0.82*** - - - - -0.39 (-0.52;-0.26) -0.59**
LTA bed-density of IF for PNH/LTA bed-density of PNH for IF in T - - Eliminated - Eliminated - - - - -
Density of subsidized bedsa -0.64 (-1.99; 0.72) -0.10 0.52 (0.29; 0.76) 0.19*** - - - - - -
Demand           
LTA percent elderlye 6.96 (5.15; 8.77) 0.62*** Eliminated - -1.26 (-2.17;-0.36) -0.38** Eliminated - Eliminated -
LTA growth rate of elderlye Eliminated - -1.09 (-1.94;-0.23) -0.20* -0.99 (-2.31; 0.34) -0.29 -2.20 (-4.86; 0.48) -0.22 - 1.85 (-3.36;-0.35) - 0.24*
LTA residential tax for T (¥1000 s)/LTA disposal income for N (€1000 s) 0.25 (-0.02; 0.52) 0.32 Eliminated - Eliminated - Eliminated - -0.98 (-1.64;-0.31) -0.29**
R2 0.74 - 0.82 - 0.56 - 0.24 - 0.56 -
Adjusted R2 0.70 - 0.79 - 0.48 - 0.19 - 0.53 -
F 18.70*** - 29.92*** - 7.17*** - 5.13** - 20.82*** -
N 54 - 51 - 47 - 54 - 54 -
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
  2. aBed density: number of beds per 1000 elderly adults aged 65 years and over.
  3. bRobust standard errors were computed to correct for possible heteroskedasticity.
  4. cBoth coefficients for average facility size remained positively significant after additional adjustment for the number of elderly adults accounting for bias caused by bed density which automatically increases with decreasing number of elderly adults.
  5. dVacancy duration for search of skilled care nurse: time taken for an employer to find a skilled elderly care nurse.
  6. eElderly persons: those aged 65 years and over.