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Table 2 Predictors of burdensome medical costs

From: A National study of burdensome health care costs among non-elderly Americans

Unadjusted models Predictor OR (95% CI) p-value
Model 1: Age Age (continuous) 1.00 (0.99-1.00) 0.48
Model 2: Health Status Excellent, very good, or good (Ref.) -- --
Fair or poor 3.75 (3.13-4.50) <0.001
Model 3: Income Income >50 K (Ref.) -- --
Income 30-50 K 2.18 (1.78-2.67) <0.001
Income <30 K 4.94 (4.02-6.09) <0.001
Model 4: Insurance Employer (Ref.) -- --
Self pay 0.84 (0.65-1.10) 0.22
Medicare 2.71 (1.99-3.69) <0.001
Medicaid 2.55 (1.80-3.62) <0.001
Other government insurance 1.36 (0.91-2.03) 0.11
Other, including parents’ insurance 0.83 (0.53-1.31) 0.42
No insurance 4.66 (3.89-5.58) <0.001
Combined model Predictor OR (95% CI) p-value
Model 5: health status + income + insurance + ethnicity + race + age + sex* Poor health 2.60 (2.12-3.20) <0.001
Income 30-50 K 1.73 (1.40-2.13) <0.001
Income <30 K 2.30 (1.79-2.95) <0.001
Self pay insurance 0.82 (0.62-1.07) 0.15
Medicare 1.43 (1.02-2.03) 0.04
Medicaid 1.32 (0.88-2.00) 0.18
Other government insurance 1.01 (0.66-1.54) 0.99
Other, including parents’ insurance 0.86 (0.54-1.38) 0.53
No insurance 3.11 (2.53-3.83) <0.001
Hispanic 1.03 (0.80-1.32) 0.82
African American 1.23 (0.98-1.51) 0.063
Asian 0.76 (0.44-1.32) 0.33
Age 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 0.82
Female sex 1.41 (1.21-1.64) <0.001
  1. *Reference groups for Model 5 same as in Models 2–4, reference group for ethnicity and race is white/Caucasian group.