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Table 3 Multinomial logistic regression $ analysis for care seeking (preventive or curative) for preterm newborns

From: Determinants and pattern of care seeking for preterm newborns in a rural Bangladeshi cohort

  Non-qualified care provider** Qualified provider*
Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) 95% CI Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) 95% CI
Parental characteristics
Mother’s age     
<25 years Ref   Ref  
25-29 years 0.86 0.69 – 1.08 0.93 0.66 – 1.31
30-34 years 0.76 0.56 – 1.01 1.51 1.01 – 2.27
35 years & above 0.78 0.57 – 1.08 1.11 0.67 – 1.82
Mother’s education     
Below primary Ref   Ref  
Primary and above 1.14 0.94 – 1.39 1.04 0.78 – 1.38
Father’s education     
Below primary level Ref   Ref  
Primary and above 0.92 0.76 – 1.11 1.33 1.02 – 1.74
Religion     
Islam Ref   Ref  
Others 1.00 0.66 – 1.51 1.00 0.55 – 1.84
Household characteristics
Household wealth quintile     
Lowest quintile (Poorest) Ref   Ref  
Second lowest quintile 1.22 0.95 – 1.56 1.33 0.89 – 1.98
Middle quintile 1.63 1.25 – 2.11 1.53 1.02 – 2.30
Second highest quintile 1.44 1.09 – 1.90 1.75 1.15 – 2.64
Highest quintile (Richest) 1.58 1.15 – 2.19 2.84 1.82 – 4.42
Distance from health facility     
Less than 2 Km Ref   Ref  
2-2.99 Km 0.78 0.65 – 0.94 0.53 0.40 – 0.70
3 Km or more 0.82 0.67 – 1.01 0.36 0.25 – 0.52
Index pregnancy and previous obstetric related characteristics of the mother
Single/multiple birth     
Singleton Ref   Ref  
Multiple birth 0.98 0.66 – 1.45 1.47 0.95 – 2.28
History of child death     
No Ref   Ref  
Yes 1.24 1.02 – 1.50 1.52 1.12 – 2.05
Characteristics of the newborn
Sex of the baby     
Male Ref   Ref  
Female 0.68 0.58 – 0.80 0.52 0.41 – 0.66
Birth Asphyxia     
No Ref   Ref  
Yes 1.45 1.15 – 1.84 1.69 1.23 – 2.31
Any signs of injury at birth     
No Ref   Ref  
Yes 1.39 0.82 – 2.38 2.97 1.62 – 5.45
Reported symptoms of illness     
No Ref   Ref  
Yes 3.18 2.64 – 3.83 3.50 2.71 – 4.53
Signs of local infections     
No Ref   Ref  
Yes 6.53 4.82 – 8.84 5.06 3.35 – 7.65
Health practices during antenatal period
Birth Preparedness     
Not compliant Ref   Ref  
Partially compliant 0.90 0.73 – 1.10 0.83 0.61 – 1.11
Fully compliant 1.17 1.04 – 1.47 1.24 1.09 – 1.68
Any ANC visit     
No Ref   Ref  
Yes 1.54 1.28 – 1.86 1.73 1.30 – 2.30
  1. $Reference category “No care received”. p <0.05.
  2. *Doctor (medical graduate), nurse, paramedic (Family Welfare Visitor, sub-assistant community medical officer) are considered as qualified provider.
  3. **All other providers.