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Table 1 Participant demographic and clinical characteristics

From: Effect of a care transition intervention by pharmacists: an RCT

  Enhanced Minimal Control Total
  N = 311 N = 312 N = 313 (n = 936)
Age     
  ≤44 years 34 (10.9) 38 (12.2) 29 (9.3) 101 (10.8)
  45–54 years 43 (13.8) 52 (16.7) 49 (15.7) 144 (15.4)
  55–64 years 101 (32.5) 96 (30.8) 110 (35.1) 307 (32.8)
  65–74 years 85 (27.3) 85 (27.2) 85 (27.2) 255 (27.2)
  ≥75 years 48 (15.4) 41 (13.1) 40 (12.8) 129 (13.8)
Education     
  Less than high school (1–8) 16 (5.1) 12 (3.9) 22 (7.0) 50 (5.3)
  High school (9–12) 151 (48.6) 153 (49.0) 151 (48.2) 455 (48.6)
  Some college 66 (21.2) 73 (23.4) 59 (18.9) 198 (21.2)
  College degree 45 (14.5) 41 (13.1) 54 (17.3) 140 (15.0)
  Professional or advanced degree 33 (10.6) 33 (10.6) 27 (8.6) 93 (9.9)
Race     
  White 287 (92.3) 283 (90.7) 285 (91.1) 855 (91.4)
  African American 12 (3.9) 16 (5.1) 18 (5.8) 46 (4.9)
  Hispanic 7 (2.3) 8 (2.6) 6 (1.9) 21 (2.2)
  Other 5 (1.6) 5 (1.6) 4 (1.3) 14 (1.5)
Annual income     
  <$10,000 32 (10.4) 34 (11.0) 35 (11.2) 101 (10.9)
  $10,000 - $24,999 55 (17.8) 56 (18.1) 64 (20.5) 175 (18.8)
  $25,000 - $39,999 68 (22.0) 53 (17.1) 42 (13.5) 163 (17.5)
  $40,000 - $54,999 56 (18.1) 46 (14.8) 42 (13.5) 144 (15.5)
  $55,000 and greater 98 (31.7) 121 (39.0) 129 (41.4) 348 (37.4)
  Missing 2 2 1 5
Marital status     
  Single/never married 21 (6.8) 18 (5.8) 29 (9.3) 68 (7.3)
  Married or living as married 194 (62.6) 213 (68.3) 206 (65.8) 613 (65.6)
  Divorced/separated 56 (18.1) 49 (15.7) 51 (16.3) 156 (16.7)
  Widowed 39 (12.6) 32 (10.3) 27 (8.6) 98 (10.5)
Medical service     
  Internal Medicine/Family Medicine 79 (25.4) 84 (26.9) 84 (26.8) 247 (26.4)
  Cardiology 111 (35.7) 111 (35.6) 112 (35.8) 334 (35.7)
  Orthopedics 121 (38.9) 117 (37.5) 117 (37.4) 355 (37.9)
Type of medical insurance     
  Private 157 (50.5) 145 (46.5) 158 (50.5) 460 (49.2)
  Medicare 120 (38.6) 123 (39.2) 114 (36.4) 357 (38.1)
  Medicaid 27 (8.7) 39 (12.5) 38 (12.1) 104 (11.1)
  Other insurer/none/self-pay 7 (2.3) 5 (1.6) 3 (1.0) 15 (1.6)
Prescription drug insurance     
  Yes 297 (95.5) 294 (94.5) 303 (97.1) 894 (95.7)
Average number of prescription medications* 11.0 (5.7) 11.8 (6.0) 10.4 (5.5) 11.0 (5.8)
Chronic conditions (% yes)     
  Hypertension 249 (80.1) 231 (74.0) 239 (76.4) 719 (76.8)
  Hyperlipidemia 194 (62.4) 195 (62.5) 189 (60.3) 578 (61.8)
  Heart failure 85 (27.3) 91 (29.2) 76 (24.3) 252 (26.9)
  Coronary artery disease 114 (36.7) 108 (34.6) 94 (30.0) 316 (33.8)
  Myocardial infarction 69 (22.2) 68 (21.8) 62 (19.8) 199 (21.2)
  Transient ischemic attacks 26 (8.4) 30 (9.6) 26 (8.3) 82 (8.8)
  Stroke 12 (3.9) 17 (5.5) 14 (4.5) 43 (4.6)
  Depression 105 (33.8) 105 (33.7) 98 (31.3) 308 (32.9)
  Anxiety 91 (29.3) 79 (25.3) 73 (23.3) 243 (26.0)
  Arthritis 193 (62.1) 197 (63.1) 192 (61.3) 582 (62.2)
  Diabetes 113 (36.3) 123 (39.4) 114 (36.4) 350 (37.4)
  Kidney disease* 35 (11.3) 58 (18.6) 34 (10.9) 127 (13.6)
  Liver disease 15 (4.8) 17 (5.5) 14 (4.5) 46 (4.9)
  Asthma or pulmonary disease 79 (25.4) 90 (28.9) 86 (27.5) 255 (27.2)
  Knee replacement 82 (26.4) 70 (22.4) 78 (24.9) 230 (24.6)
  Hip replacement 49 (15.8) 36 (11.5) 32 (10.2) 117 (12.5)
  Fracture 135 (43.4) 133 (42.6) 131 (41.9) 399 (42.6)
  Cancer 56 (18.0) 54 (17.3) 49 (15.7) 159 (17.0)
  Other 172 (55.3) 183 (58.7) 171 (54.6) 526 (56.2)
Smoking status     
  Never 132 (42.4) 150 (48.1) 126 (40.3) 408 (43.6)
  Current 33 (10.6) 35 (11.2) 27 (8.6) 95 (10.2)
  Ex-smoker 146 (47.0) 127 (40.7) 160 (51.1) 433 (46.3)
Alcohol intake     
  None 200 (64.3) 190 (60.9) 183 (58.7) 573 (61.3)
  <1 drink/day 82 (26.4) 95 (30.5) 100 (32.1) 277 (29.6)
  1–2 drinks/day 22 (7.1) 21 (6.7) 24 (7.7) 67 (7.2)
  ≥3 drinks/day 7 (2.3) 6 (1.9) 5 (1.6) 18 (1.9)
Self-rated health     
  Excellent 15 (4.8) 13 (4.2) 19 (6.1) 47 (5.0)
  Very good 55 (17.7) 44 (14.1) 48 (15.3) 147 (15.7)
  Good 116 (37.4) 122 (39.1) 132 (42.2) 370 (39.6)
  Fair 88 (28.4) 87 (27.9) 79 (25.2) 254 (27.2)
  Poor 36 (11.6) 46 (14.7) 35 (11.2) 117 (12.5)
Self-reported medication adherence
  Forget (% never or rarely)* 233 (75.2) 245 (79.0) 267 (85.6) 745 (79.9)
  Careless (% never or rarely) 282 (91.0) 289 (93.2) 299 (95.8) 870 (93.4)
  Stop if feel better (% never or rarely) 292 (94.2) 292 (94.2) 302 (96.8) 886 (95.1)
  Stop if feel worse (% never or rarely) 278 (89.7) 278 (89.7) 286 (91.7) 842 (90.3)
Medication management ability
  Able (% scoring 5) 203 (66.3) 218 (70.1) 211 (68.5) 632 (68.3)
  Some limitation (% 4 or less) 103 (33.7) 93 (29.9) 97 (31.5) 293 (68.3)
  Missing 5 1 5 11
Medication self-efficacy scale     
  Average (standard deviation) 123.3 (±12.5) 124.4 (±12.3) 125.0 (±10.1) 124.2 (±11.7)
Instrumental activities of daily living
  No limitation 215 (69.4) 226 (72.4) 239 (76.4) 680 (72.7)
  Requires help or unable on 1 35 (11.3) 42 (13.5) 27 (8.6) 104 (6.0)
  Requires help or unable on 2 22 (7.1) 13 (4.2) 21 (6.7) 56 (6.0)
  Requires help or unable on 3 or more 38 (12.2) 31 (9.9) 26 (8.3) 95 (10.1)
  1. *Variables were significantly different among groups (p < 0.01).