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Table 3 Regulatory characteristics of SDSs in the two districts (n = 213)

From: The policy-practice gap: describing discordances between regulation on paper and real-life practices among specialized drug shops in Kenya

  Total Districts Locations
  n (%) Bungoma Kakamega p-Value Urban Rural p-Value
   n (%) n (%)   n (%) n (%)  
Number of shops surveyed 213 120 93 - 65 148 -
Shop and staff characteristics        
Premises made of bricks or stone 210 (99) 119 (99) 91 (98) 0.4 64 (98) 146 (99) 0.08
Shops with separate dispensing room 46 (22) 19 (16) 27 (29) 0.02 28 (43) 18 (12) <0.001
Shops selling household merchandise with medicines 50 (23) 26 (22) 24 (26) 0.5 13 (20) 37 (25) 0.4
Shops displaying any licenses on the wall 119 (56) 66 (55) 53 (58) 0.7 41 (63) 78 (53) 0.1
Shops with a pharmacy-qualified staff member1 99 (46) 52 (43) 47 (51) 0.3 39 (60) 60 (41) 0.009
Staff knows name of main law governing pharmacy2 64 (30) 33 (27) 31 (33) 0.4 33 (51) 31 (21) <0.001
Availability of materials and equipment        
Shops with a prescription recording book 89 (42) 58 (48) 31 (33) 0.03 37 (57) 52 (35) 0.003
Shops with a working refrigerator available 25 (12) 13 (11) 12 (13) 0.6 18 (28) 7 (5) <0.001
Shops with a narcotics cupboard available 39 (18) 26 (22) 13 (14) 0.2 24 (37) 15 (10) <0.001
Frequency of regulatory inspection        
Shops inspected within the last 12 months 182 (85) 104 (87) 78 (84) 0.6 58 (89) 124 (84) 0.3
  1. 1Includes pharmacists and pharmaceutical technologists, the two cadres recognized by the Kenyan law.
  2. 2Staff who could correctly name the ‘Pharmacy and Poisons Act’ as the main legislation governing pharmacy.