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Table 3 Bivariate relations between the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) and health-related outcomes

From: Relationships between patient activation, disease-specific knowledge and health outcomes among people with diabetes; a survey study

  N % Mean PAM (SD) p-value
Life style and self-management
Smoking status 1,818    0.862
 No 1,468 80.7 57.4 (14.4)  
 Yes 350 19.3 57.5 (13.9)  
Self-checking blood glucose level 1,820    0.822
 No 1,090 59.9 57.5 (14.7)  
 Yes 730 40.1 57.3 (13.8)  
Self-perceived knowledge     
Knowledge of type of diabetes 1,781    <0.001
 No 352 19.8 55.2 (14.6)  
 Yes 1,429 80.2 58.1 (14.2)  
Knowledge about side-effects of medicines 1,317    <0.001
 No 118 9.0 51.5 (12.8)  
 Not really 282 21.4 52.6 (12.7)  
 On the whole, yes 226 17.2 56.6 (13.0)  
 Yes 691 52.5 60.6 (14.5)  
Knowledge about what to do when blood glucose level is too high 1,780    <0.001
 No 285 16.0 54.8 (14.8)  
 Not really 371 20.8 54.1 (13.5)  
 On the whole, yes 249 14.0 56.5 (12.5)  
 Yes 875 49.2 59.9 (14.5)  
Healthcare utilization
Blood sample to check HbA1C 1,806    0.218
 Within the past 12 months 1,672 92.6 57.5 (14.3)  
 Over 12 months ago/Never 50 2.8 59.5 (16.1)  
 Don’t know 84 4.7 55.2 (13.6)  
Blood sample to check cholesterol level 1,811    0.007
 Within the past 12 months 1,598 88.2 57.7 (14.3)  
 Over 12 months ago/Never 130 7.2 56.5 (13.2)  
 Don’t know 83 4.6 52.8 (14.2)  
Blood pressure measurement by healthcare provider 1,821    0.132
 Within the past 12 months 1,769 97.1 57.4 (14.3)  
 Over 12 months ago/Never 40 2.2 58.4 (16.3)  
 Don’t know 12 0.7 49.3 (10.6)  
Feet check by doctor 1,808    0.004
 Within the past 12 months 1,428 79.0 57.9 (14.3)  
 Over 12 months ago/Never 339 18.8 55.5 (14.2)  
 Don’t know 41 2.3 53.3 (14.4)  
Eye examination 1,828    0.001
 Within the past 24 months 1,698 92.9 57.7 (14.4)  
 Over 24 months ago/Never 113 6.2 53.8 (13.1)  
 Don’t know 17 0.9 48.9 (12.8)  
Self-reported clinical values
Level of blood glucose 1,783    <0.001
 Between 2% and 7% 717 40.2 59.2 (14.4)  
 Between 7% and 9% 514 28.8 58.3 (14.1)  
 Between 9% and 24% 72 4.0 54.9 (14.3)  
 Don’t know 480 26.9 54.4 (13.6)  
Diastolic blood pressure 1,764    <0.001
 Lower than 90 1,227 69.6 58.6 (14.2)  
 90 or higher 232 13.2 56.3 (14.3)  
 Don’t know 305 17.3 53.7 (13.1)  
Systolic blood pressure 1,788    <0.001
 Lower than 140 924 51.7 58.8 (14.4)  
 140 or higher 600 33.6 56.7 (13.9)  
 Don’t know 264 14.8 53.9 (13.3)  
  1. Note. Bold values indicate a p-value < 0.05.