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Table 1 Characteristics of 1086 Claims

From: Claims, liabilities, injures and compensation payments of medical malpractice litigation cases in China from 1998 to 2011

Characteristic   Characteristic  
Court—no. (%) 1086 Others 26(3)
Inferior courts 230(21) Medical Specialties—no. (%) 841
Intermediate court 803(74) Obstetrics and gynecology 162(19)
Superior court 53(5) Orthopedic 157(19)
Procedure—no. (%) 1086 General surgery 124(15)
The first trial 243(22) Neurology and neurosurgery 68(8)
Procedure of second Instance 766(71) Respiratory medicine 52(6)
Retrial process 78(7) Oncology 37(4)
Appellant—no. (%)* 844 Gastroenterology 36(4)
hospitals 265(31) Cardiology and cardiac surgery 35(4)
patients 468(56) Pediatrics 34(4)
both 110(13) Ophthalmology and otolaryngology 29(3)
Closure date—no. (%) 1086 Nephrology 18(2)
1998-2001 74(7) Urology 13(2)
2002-2005 104(9) Stomatology 10(1)
2006-2009 485(45) Others 66(8)
2010-2011 423(39) Classification of disease(ICD)—no. (%) 841
Region—no. (%) 1086
The west 191(17) Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes 183(22)
The midland 572(53)
The east 323(30) Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium 135(16)
Expense in litigation—$ †‡ 932
Expense in litigation per-claim   Diseases of the digestive system 92(11)
Mean 1224 Neoplasms 67(8)
Median 804 Diseases of the respiratory system 58(7)
Plaintiff burden   Diseases of the nervous system 55(6)
Mean 590 Diseases of the circulatory system 53(6)
Median 295 Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified 43(5)
Defendants burden  
Mean 639
Median 263 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue 42(5)
Time—d. 932
Time of treatment   Diseases of the genitourinary system 41(5)
Mean 41 Others 72(9)
Median 8 Degree of liability—no. (%) 597
Time from treatment to discover the injury   Full liability 172(29)
Ultimate liability 185(31)
Mean 311 Equal liability 38(6)
Median 5 Secondary liability 189(32)
Time from the dispute to closure   Minor responsibility 13(2)
Mean 999 Concurrence of causes—no. (%) 597
Median 758 Yes 447(75)
Type of medical facility—no.(%) 841 No 150(25)
General hospital 558(66) Types of concurrent causes— no. (%) 447
Township hospital 80(10)
Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospitals 52(6) Cause of patients and families 344(77)
The third person tort and hospital joint infringement 76(17)
Specialty hospital 49(6)
Clinic 48(6) Multiple medical institutions joint infringement 27(6)
Maternal and Child Health Hospital 28(3)
  1. *Percentage were calculated with the number of procedure of second instance (n=766) and retrial process(n=78).
  2. the case number of expense in litigation and time included the civil judgment (n=841) and civil mediation (n=91).
  3. Value are given in 2011 dollars ($U.S.1=¥ 6.34).
  4. Percentage were calculated with the number of the civil judgment (n=841).
  5. Degree of liability and concurrence of tort were calculated on the basis of fault liability only (n=597).