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Table 4 Associations between participants’ characteristics and race/ethnicity based discrimination within healthcare settings among non-White participants

From: Different faces of discrimination: perceived discrimination among homeless adults with mental illness in healthcare settings

Explanatory variables Discrimination due to race or ethnicity or skin color (n = 329)
  Unadjusted OR Adjusted OR3
Age§, years, mean (SD) .94 [.75-1.18] -
Male£ 1.07 [.61-1.90] -
Race Black (ref) 1.0 -
Other ethnic minority .84 [.50-1.44] -
Monthly income, CAD <$500 (ref) 1.0 1.0
$500-$999 1.80 [.98-3.32] 1.54 [.79-3.00]
≥$1,000 1.96 [.94-4.09] 1.87 [.83-4.19]
Homeless for ≥3 years 1.57 [.92-2.68] 1.54 [.85-2.80]
CSI ≥30 1.69 [.84-3.41] 1.67 [.75-3.70]
GAIN SDScr No/low (ref) 1.0 1.0
Moderate 3.61 [1.43-9.13] ** 3.66 [1.39-9.61]**
High 2.82 [1.20-6.60] * 1.75 [.70-4.38]
Psychotic disorder .97 [.57-1.67] 1.05 [0.58-1.89]
ED visits in the past 6 months No visits (ref) 1.0 1.0
1 visit 2.68 [1.38-5.19] * 3.17 [1.56-6.48] **
  ≥ 2 visits 2.58 [1.34-4.96] * 2.27 [1.13-4.55] *
  1. The adjusted model includes variables that were associated with the outcome variable at the level of P ≤.20 in the univariate analysis and presence of psychotic disorder as a control variable.
  2. CI, confidence interval; OR, Odds Ratio (95% CI).
  3. §Age is measured in decades in logistic regression analyses.
  4. £Male category includes transgender/transsexual individuals.
  5. CSI ≥30, score ≥30 on the Colorado Symptom Index indicates psychiatric disability and presence of clinically significant mental symptoms.
  6. GAIN SDScr; Substance Disorder Screener. Counts are triaged into low (0 symptoms), moderate (1-2 symptoms), and high (3 or more symptoms) severity symptoms.
  7. MINI v. 6.0; the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 6.0.
  8. Model coefficients: χ2 (9, n=329) = 27.24, P < .01; Hosmer&Lemeshow test: χ2 (8, n=329) = 4.28, p =.83.
  9. *p<.05; **p<.01; ***p<.001.