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Table 3 Associations between participants’ characteristics and type of perceived discrimination within healthcare settings

From: Different faces of discrimination: perceived discrimination among homeless adults with mental illness in healthcare settings

Explanatory variables Discrimination due to poverty or homelessness Discrimination due to mental illness or alcohol or drugs Discrimination due to race or ethnicity or skin color
  Unadjusted OR Adjusted OR1 Unadjusted OR Adjusted OR2 Unadjusted OR Adjusted OR3
Age§, years, mean (SD) .95 [.81-1.12] - .78 [.67-.92] ** .70 [.58-.85] *** .88 [.71-1.08] -
Male£ 1.10 [.74-1.64] - .83 [.56-1.21] - 1.13 [.68-1.90] -
Race White (ref) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Black .53 [.34-.83] ** .72 [.44-1.20] .39 [.25-.60] *** .46 [.28-.77] ** 3.13 [1.66-5.91] *** 3.96 [1.99-7.88] ***
Other ethnic minority .79 [.51- 1.23] .94 [.58-1.55] .54 [.35-.85] ** .53 [.32-.89] * 2.65 [1.37-5.12] ** 3.22 [1.61-6.42] **
Monthly income, CAD <$500 (ref) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 -
$500-$999 1.52 [.99-2.33] 1.25 [.78-1.99] 1.78 [1.17-2.72] ** 1.47 [.91-2.37] 1.30 [.77-2.21] -
≥$1,000 1.78 [1.08-2.92] * 1.42 [.82-2.44] 2.00 [1.22-3.28] ** 1.50 [.86-2.62] 1.03 [.56-2.09] -
Homeless for ≥3 years 1.80 [1.23-2.61] ** 1.64 [1.08-2.48] * 1.55 [1.07-2.24] * 1.60 [1.04-2.47] * 1.34 [.83-2.16] -
CSI ≥30 2.35 [1.41-3.93] ** 1.75 [.99-3.10] 2.92 [1.73-4.92] *** 1.97 [1.11-3.52] * 1.94 [.99-3.79] 2.16 [1.03-4.55] *
GAIN SDScr No/low (ref) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Moderate 2.45 [1.18-5.09] * 2.54 [1.17-5.50] * 1.65 [.82-3.33] 1.27 [.59-2.72] 3.39 [1.44-7.99] ** 3.76 [1.56-9.09]**
High 3.58 [1.91-6.69] *** 2.41 [1.21-4.81] * 3.25 [1.82-5.81] *** 1.49 [.77-2.87] 1.92 [.88-4.21] 1.85 [0.81-4.21]
Psychotic disorder .82 [.56-1.20] 1.04 [.68-1.60] .58 [.39-.86] ** .76 [.48-1.18] 1.11 [.69-1.80] 1.02 [0.60-1.73]
ED visits in the past 6 months No visits (ref) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
1 visit 1.64 [1.01-2.66] * 1.55 [.92-2.61] 2.29 [1.41-3.70] ** 1.81 [1.07-3.07] * 2.11 [1.16-3.86] * 2.68 [1.41-5.09] **
  ≥ 2 visits 2.62 [1.69-4.08] *** 2.07 [1.28-3.35] ** 3.43 [2.20-5.35] *** 2.57 [1.57-4.20] *** 2.02 [1.13-3.58] * 2.55 [1.37-4.76] **
  1. CI, confidence interval; OR, Odds Ratio (95% CI). Presence of psychotic disorder was entered in all multivariable models as a control variable.
  2. §Age is measured in decades in logistic regression analyses.
  3. £Male category includes transgender/transsexual individuals.
  4. CSI ≥30, score ≥30 on the Colorado Symptom Index indicates psychiatric disability and presence of clinically significant mental symptoms.
  5. GAIN SDScr, Substance Disorder Screener. Life time severity counts are triaged into low (0 symptoms), moderate (1-2 symptoms), and high (3 or more symptoms) severity symptoms.
  6. MINI v. 6.0; the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 6.0.
  7. 1 - Model coefficients: χ2 (11, n=509) = 47.79, P < .001; Hosmer&Lemeshow test: χ2 (8, n=509) = 10.9, p =.21.
  8. 2 - Model coefficients: χ2 (12, n=504) = 80.35, P < .001; Hosmer&Lemeshow test: χ2 (8, n=504) = 4.91, p =.77.
  9. 3 - Model coefficients: χ2 (8, n=519) = 41.27, P < .001; Hosmer&Lemeshow test: χ2 (8, n=519) = 9.65, p =.29.
  10. *p<.05; **p<.01; ***p<.001; Borderline significance at p<.06.